Prospective, Randomized Comparisons of Induction of Anesthesia with Ketamine, Propofol and Sevoflurane for Quality of Recovery from Short Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients


Background: Emergence agitation (EA) after sevoflurane anesthesia is common in children. When rapid intravenous induction of general anesthesia is indicated in a brief procedure, the induction agent can reduce the incidence of EA after sevoflurane anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous induction with ketamine and propofol for reducing EA in children after short sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Children aged 2 to 6 years who were scheduled to undergo inguinal hernia repair were randomly divided into 3 groups to receive 2 mg/kg ketamine iv, 3 mg/kg propofol iv, or inspired concentration of 8% sevoflurane for induction of anesthesia. After a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion, a caudal block was performed in all children. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.5% sevoflurane and 65% nitrous oxide in oxygen with spontaneous ventilation. The recovery characteristics were recorded and EA were evaluated by using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale. Results: One hundred and twenty children were enrolled and randomized to treatment. Children who received ketamine induction had higher incidence of EA than those who received propofol (42% vs 16%, P < 0.05) and showed delayed recovery (32 ± 9 min) as compared with those who received propofol or sevoflurane (22 ± 8 min and 20 ± 7 min, respectively, P < 0.05). The mean peak PAED score was significantly lower in children who received propofol induction (6.8 ± 4.0, P < 0.05) than ketamine (11.8 ± 4.1) or sevoflurane (11.6 ± 3.8). Conclusions: Intravenous induction with ketamine does not prevent the incidence of EA and delays recovery. Induction with propofol improves the quality of recovery by reducing the incidence of EA and provides a safe and early recovery.

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Nakayama, S. , Furukawa, H. and Yanai, H. (2015) Prospective, Randomized Comparisons of Induction of Anesthesia with Ketamine, Propofol and Sevoflurane for Quality of Recovery from Short Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients. Open Journal of Anesthesiology, 5, 163-169. doi: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.57029.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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