Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV in Pregnant Women in the Community in the Democratic Republic of Congo


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV in pregnant women and identify risk factors. Materials and Methods: Descriptive and analytical study on pregnant women in the community Maniema (DRC) between 24 June and 24 July 2013. We enrolled a total of 581 pregnant women. Results: Prevalence among pregnant women was 4.1% (2.5% to 6.3%) for HIV, 5.9% (3.9% to 8.4%) for the HBsAg and 4.1% (2.5% to 6.4%) for hepatitis C. The risk factor was for HIV, blood transfusion history in women. For HBsAg the main risk factor was the tattoo history and no statistically significant factor was found for hepatitis C. Conclusion: To reduce the risk of transmission of hepatitis from mother to child, all pregnant women should be screened prenatally. A strengthening of routine screening of blood products must be done and a health education of the population on the mode of contamination should be conducted.

Share and Cite:

Kabinda, J. , Akilimali, T. , Miyanga, A. , Donnen, P. and Michèle, D. (2015) Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV in Pregnant Women in the Community in the Democratic Republic of Congo. World Journal of AIDS, 5, 124-130. doi: 10.4236/wja.2015.52015.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Bossali, F., Taty-Taty, R., Houssissa, P., N’suele, W., Lingouala, L.G., Ontsira, E.N. and Obengui (2012) Seroprevalence of Co-Infection, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV among Expectant Mothers Maternity Adolphe Sice Hospital of Pointe-Noire in 2010. Journal Africain d’Hépato-Gastroentérologie, 6, 315-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12157-012-0424-1
[2] Hannachi, N., Bahri, O., Mhalla, S., Marzouk, Mr., Sadraoui, A., Belguith, A., Triki, H. and Boukadida, J. (2009) Viral Hepatitis B among Tunisian Pregnant Women: Risk Factors and Interests the Study of Viral Replication in Case of HBe-Antigen Negative. Pathology Biology, 57, e43-e47.
[3] Store-Rogez, S. and Alain Denis, F. (2002) Hepatitis Viruses: MTCT. Pathologie Biologie, 50, 568-575.
[4] Debbeche, R., Said, Y., Ben Temime, H., El Jery, K., Salem, S.B.M. and Najjar, T. (2013) Hepatitis C Epidemiology in Tunisia. The Tunisia Medical, 91, 86-91.
[5] Lavanchy, D. (2009) The Global Burden of Hepatitis C. Liver International, 29, 74-81.
[6] Shepard, C.W., Finelli, L. and Alter, M.J. (2005) Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5, 558-567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70216-4
[7] Denis, F., Ranger-Rogez, S., Tabaste, J.L., Soulie, J.C. and Goudeau, A. (1999) Hepatitis B. In: Enis, F., Ed., Transmitted the Virus from Mother to Child, John Libbey Eurotext, Paris, 85-103.
[8] Otta, J.J., Stevensa, G.A., Groegerb, J. and Wiersmaa, S.T. (2012) Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: New Estimates of Age-Specific and HBsAg Seroprevalence Endemicity. Vaccine, 30, 2212-2219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.12.116
[9] Hanafiah, K.M., Groeger, J., Flaxman, D.A. and Wiersma, S.T. (2013) Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: New Estimates of Age Specific-Antibody to HCV Seroprevalence. Hepatology, 57, 1333-1342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.26141
[10] Nzaji, K. and Kabyla Ilunga, B. (2013) Prevalence of Infectious Markers in Rural Blood Donors. Cas General Hospital Kamina Reference. Public Health, 25, 213-217.
[11] National AIDS Control Plan 2014-2017. Ministry of Health DRC 2013, Kinshasa.
[12] Zenebe, Y., Mulu, W., Yimer, M. and Abera, B. (2014) Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 14, 118.
[13] Roberts, E.A. and Yeung, L. (2002) Maternal-Infant Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Hepatology, 36, S106-S113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.1840360714
[14] Mast, E.E., Hwang, L.Y., Seto, D.S.Y., Nolte, F.S., Nainan, O.V., Wurtzel, H. and Alter, M.J. (2005) Risk Factoring for Perinatal Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and the Natural History of HCV Infection Acquired in Infancy. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 192, 1880-1889.
[15] Larsen, C., Pialoux, G. and Salmon, D. (2005) Prevalence of Co-Infection by the Hepatitis B and C in HIV+ Population of France. BEH, 23, 109-112.
[16] Tagny, C.T., Mbanya, D., Tapko, J.B. and Lefrère, J.J. (2008) Blood Safety in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Factorial Problem. Transfusion, 48, 1256-1261.
[17] Sidibe, S., Sacko, B.Y. and Traoré, I. (2001) Prevalence of Serological Markers of Hepatitis B in Pregnant Women in the District of Bamako, Mali. Bulletin de la Société de pathologie Exotique, 84, 339-341.
[18] Triki, H., Said, N., Salah, A.B., Arrouji, A., Ahmed, F.B., Bouguerra, A., Hmida, S., Dhahri, R. and Dellagi, K. (1997) Seroepidemiology of Hepatitis B, C and Delta Viruses in Tunisia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 91, 11-14.
[19] Gasim, G.I., Murad, I.A. and Adam, I. (2013) Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections among Pregnant Women in Arab and African Countries. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 7, 566-578. http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.3243
[20] François, D., Berges, P., Chastagner, M. and Delpeyroux, C. (2003) Screening HBsAg in Pregnant Women: What Coverage? Survey in Haute-Vienne. BEH, 33, 157-160.
[21] Salleras, L., Domínguez, A., Bruguera, M., Plans, P., Espuñes, J., Costa, J., et al. (2009) Hepatitis B Seroepidemiology of Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Catalonia (Spain). Journal of Clinical Virology, 44, 329-332.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2009.01.002
[22] Wong, F., Pai, R., Van Schalkwyk, J. and Yoshida, E.M. (2014) Hepatitis B in Pregnancy: A Concise Review of Neonatal Vertical Transmission and Antiviral Prophylaxis. Annals of Hepatology, 13, 187-195.
[23] Merle, V., Goria, O., Gourier-Frery, C., Benguigui, C., Michel, P., Huet, P., et al. (1999) Risk Factors of Contamination by Hepatitis C Virus. Case-Control Study in the General Population. Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, 23, 439-446.
[24] Olokoba, A.B., Accama, L.A., Gashau, W. and Salawu, F.K. (2011) Risk Factoring and Clinical Presentation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Nigerians with Chronic Liver Disease. Tropical Doctor, 41, 146-147.http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/td.2011.100378

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.