Toxicity Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate Collected in Different Seasons from Okhala Landfill Site of Delhi


Recent studies of leachate induced toxicity have mainly focused on crude leachates collected once from the landfill site, while little attention has been paid to the changes in toxicity resulting from the varying leachate concentration with respect to seasonal variation. The present study deals with the toxicological effects of municipal landfill leachate on Vicia faba. Leachate samples were collected in different seasons (summer, monsoon and winter) and toxicity study was performed via various parameters like germination inhibition, growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The results show that landfill leachate of all three seasons promoted the growth and chlorophyll content at lower doses for short exposure time but at the higher doses there was inhibition of growth as well as reduction in the chlorophyll content. There was a dose dependent elevation in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and inhibited antioxidant enzyme activities. The physiological responses varied as a function of leachate concentration which was further dependent on the season of leachate collection. Therefore, this study suggests that the leachate collected in all the three seasons is toxic and may pose a health effect to the general public directly or indirectly. It also suggests that the most important aspect for the treatment of landfill leachate is controlling its concentration which varies with respect to the seasons of leachate collection.

Share and Cite:

Gupta, A. and Rajamani, P. (2015) Toxicity Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate Collected in Different Seasons from Okhala Landfill Site of Delhi. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 8, 357-369. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2015.86034.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Mukherjee, S., Mukhopadhyay, S., Hashim, M.A. and Gupta, B.A. (2015) Contemporary Environmental Issues of Landfill Leachate: Assessment and Remedies. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 472- 590.
[2] Christensen, T.H., Bjerg, P.P.L., Jensen, D.L., Christensen, A., Baum, A., Albrechtsen, H.J. and Heron, H. (2001) Biochemistry of Landfill Leachate Plumes. Applied Geochemistry, 16, 659-718.
[3] Sanchez-Chardi, A. and Nadal, J. (2007) Bioaccu-mulation of Metals and Effects of Landfill Pollution in Small Mammals. Chemosphere, 68, 703-711.
[4] Pivato, A. and Gaspari, L. (2006) Acute Toxicity Test of Leachates from Traditional and Sustainable Landfills Using Luminescent Bacteria. Waste Management, 26, 1148-1155.
[5] Sang, N., Li, G. and Xin, X. (2006) Municipal Landfill Leachate Induces Cytogenetic Damage in Root Tips of Hordeum vulgare. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 63, 469-473.
[6] Schrab, G.E., Brown, K.W. and Donnelly, K.C. (1993) Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 69, 99-112.
[7] Kjeldsen, P., Barla, M. A., Rooker, A.P., Baun, A., Ledin, A. and Christensen, T.H. (2002) Present and Long-Term Composition of MSW Landfill Leachate: A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 32, 297-336.
[8] Slack, R.J., Gronow, J.R. and Voulvoulis, N. (2005) Household Hazardous Waste in Municipal Landfills: Contaminants in Leachate. Science of the Total Environment, 337, 119-137.
[9] Kalcikova, G., Vavrova, M.J., Zagorc-Koncan, T. and Gotvajn, A.Z. (2011) Seasonal Variations in Municipal Landfill Leachate Quality. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 22, 612-619.
[10] Matejczyk, M., Plaza, G.A., Nalecz-Jawecki, G., Ulfig, K. and Markowska-Szczupak, A. (2011) Estimation of the Environmental Risk Posed by Landfills Using Chemical, Microbiological and Ecotoxicological Testing of Leachates. Chemosphere, 82, 1017-1023.
[11] Trankler, J., Visvanathan, C., Kuruparan, P. and Tubtimthai, O. (2005) Influence of Tropical Seasonal Variations on Landfill Leachate Characteristics Results from Lysimeter Studies. Waste Management, 25, 1013-1020.
[12] Visvanathan, J., Trankler, P., Kuruparan, Q. and Qin, X.N. (2003) Influence of Landfill Operation and Waste Composition on Leachate Control: Lysimeter Experiments under Tropical Conditions. Proceedings of the 2nd Asia Pacific Landfill Symposium, Seoul, 441-447.
[13] Mangimbulude, J.C., Boris, M., Breukelen, V., Krave, A.S., Nico, M. and Wilfred, F.M. (2009) Seasonal Dynamics in Leachate Hydrochemistry and Natural Attenuation in Surface Run-Off Water from a Tropical Landfill. Waste Management, 29, 829-838.
[14] Tatsi, A.A. and Zouboulis, A.I. (2002) A Field Investigation of the Quantity and Quality of Leachate from a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in a Mediterranean Climate (Thessaloniki, Greece). Advances in Environmental Research, 6, 207- 219.
[15] Thomas, D.J.L., Tyrrel, S.F., Smith, F. and Farrow, S. (2009) Bioassays for the Evaluation of Landfill Leachate Toxicity. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B: Critical Reviews, 12, 83-105.
[16] Li, G.K., Yun, Y., Li, H.Y. and Sang, N. (2008) Effect of Landfill Leachate on Cell Cycle, Micronucleus, and Sister Chromatid Exchange in Triticum aestivum. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 155, 10-16.
[17] Sang, N. and Li, G.K. (2004) Genotoxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate on Root Tips of Vicia faba. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 560, 159-165.
[18] Kumar, N., Bauddh, K., Kumar, S., Dwivedi, N., Singh, D.P. and Barman, S.C. (2012) Extractibility and Phytotoxicity of Heavy Metals Present in Petrochemical Industry Sludge. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 15, 1033- 1039.
[19] Xi, D.L., Sun, Y.S. and Liu, X.Y. (1996) Environment Monitoring. Higher Education Press, Beijing.
[20] Federation, Water Environmental and American Public Health Association (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington DC.
[21] Sang, N., Han, M., Li, G.K. and Huang, M.Z. (2010) Landfill Leachate Affects Metabolic Responses of Zea mays Seedlings. Waste Management, 30, 856-862.
[22] Janero, D. and David, R. (1990) Malondialdehyde and Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactivity as Diagnostic Indices of Lipid Peroxidation and Peroxidative Tissue Injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 9, 515-540.
[23] El-Moshaty, F.I.B., Pike, S.M., Novacky, A.J. and Sehgal, O.P. (1993) Lipid Peroxidation and Superoxide Production in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) Leaves Infected with Tobacco Ringspot Virus or Southern Bean Mosaic Virus. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 43, 109-119.
[24] Zhu, G.L., Zhong, H.W. and Zhang, A.Q. (1990) The Experiments of Plant Physiology. The Peking University Press, Beijing.
[25] Zhang, Z.L. (1990) The Experimental Methods of Plant Physiology. Higher Education Press, Beijing, 51-53.
[26] The Gazette of India (2000) Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules. Notification Issued by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
[27] Jones, D.L., Williamson, K.L. and Owen, A.G. (2006) Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate. Waste Management, 26, 825-837.
[28] Cargnelutti, D., Tabaldi, L.A., Spanevell, R.M., Jucoski, G., de Oliveira, V., Battisti, M., Redin, C.E., Linares, V.L., Dressler, E.M., de Moraes, F.T., Nicoloso, V.M. and Morsch, M.R. (2006) Mercury Toxicity Induces Oxidative Stress in Growing Cucumber Seedlings. Chemosphere, 65, 999-1006.
[29] Calabreseci, E.J. (1999) Evidence That Hormesis Represents an Overcompensation Response to a Disruption in Homeostasis. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 42, 135-137.
[30] Barcelo, J. and Poschenrieder, C. (2002) Fast Root Growth Responses, Root Exudates, and Internal Detoxification as Clues to the Mechanisms of Aluminium Toxicity and Resistance: A Review. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 48, 75-92.
[31] Calabrese, E.J. and Blain, R. (2005) The Occurrence of Hormetic Dose Responses in the Toxicological Literature, the Hormesis Database: An Overview. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology Review, 202, 289-301.
[32] Apel, K. and Hirt, H. (2004) Reactive Oxygen Species: Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, and Signal Transduction. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 55, 373-399.
[33] Prasad, T.K. (1996) Mechanisms of chilling—Induced Oxidative Stress Injury and Tolerance in Developing Maize Seedlings: Changes in Antioxidant System, Oxidation of Proteins and Lipids, and Protease Activities. The Plant Journal, 10, 1017-1026.
[34] Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J.M.C. (1993) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
[35] Meena, R. and Paulraj, R. (2012) Oxidative Stress Mediated Cytotoxicity of TiO2 Nano Anatase in Liver and Kidney of Wistar Rat. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 94, 146-163.
[36] Scandalios, J.G. (1993) Oxygen Stress and Superoxide Dismutases. Plant Physiology, 101, 1-7.
[37] Zhu, N., Ku, T.T., Li, G.K. and Sang, N. (2013) Evaluating Biotoxicity Variations of Landfill Leachate as Penetrating through the Soil Column. Waste Management, 33, 1750-1757.
[38] Bakare, A.A., Mosuro, A.A. and Osibanjo, O. (2000) Effect of Stimulated Leachate on Chromosomes and Mitosis in Roots of Allium cepa L. Environmental Biology, 21, 251-260.
[39] Li, G.K., Sang, N. and Guo, D.S. (2006) Oxidative Damage Induced in Hearts, Kidneys and Spleens of Mice by Landfill Leachate. Chemosphere, 65, 1058-1063.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.