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Modeling 3D Ex-Filtration Process of a Soak-Away Rain Garden

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DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.33004    2,281 Downloads   2,691 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics to understand the 3D ex-filtration process of a soak-away rain garden. With a design hyetograph of 3-month average rainfall intensities of Singapore, it is found that the average vertical ex-filtration rate that is obtained by dividing the average vertical ex-filtration (drained through bottom of the soak-away rain garden, averaged over the simulation period = 720 min, and expressed in m3) by the surface area of the soak-away rain garden and the simulation time step is almost constant regardless of increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) of the in-situ soil and the surface area of the soak-away rain garden as a percentage of catchment area. However, as depth to groundwater table which is measured from bottom of the filter media increases, in between 0.5 m and 1 m of depth to groundwater table, the average vertical ex-filtration rate decreases significantly (by around 15 - 20 mm/hr) and the decrease is almost twice, compared with that between 1 m and 1.5 m of depth to groundwater table. Furthermore, this study shows that for a given K of in-situ, K of filter media, and depth to groundwater table, as the surface area of the soak-away rain garden increases, the horizontal flow coefficient which is defined as the ratio between total horizontal ex-filtration (drained through sides of the soak-away rain garden, summed over the simulation period, and expressed in m3) and total vertical ex-filtration (drained through bottom of the soak-away rain garden, summed over the simulation period, and expressed in m3) decreases. Moreover, for a given surface area of the soak-away rain garden, K of in-situ, and depth to groundwater table, the horizontal flow coefficient decreases as K of the filter media increases. However, it is found that for a given surface area of the soak-away rain garden, K of in-situ, and K of filter media, the horizontal flow coefficient increases as depth to groundwater table increases.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Mylevaganam, S. , Chui, T. and Hu, J. (2015) Modeling 3D Ex-Filtration Process of a Soak-Away Rain Garden. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 3, 35-51. doi: 10.4236/gep.2015.33004.

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