Real Time MR Thermometry Using Tm-DOTMA


We present results of real-time and sensitive MR Thermometry (MRT) using a paramagnetic lanthanide complex thulium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraa-cetate (Tm-DOTMA) to study radio frequency (RF) heating induced by a copper wire and a titanium bone screw in an agarose gel phantom. The temperature dependent chemical shift coefficient (TDCSC) of the methyl resonance was found to be 0.7 ± 0.03 ppm/°;C in agarose gel. The methyl protons of Tm-DOTMA were imaged using 2D chemical shift imaging (CSI) and 3D phase mapping methods (PMM), approximately 7 sec long, and compared with conventional water proton resonance frequency (PRF) method. Two RF-induced heating approaches were tested: 1) using a prescan before the MRT; or 2) using the heating caused by the imaging pulse during continuous imaging. Both approaches allowed detection of temperature changes which are less than 1°;C and continuously mapping temperature changes around the copper wire. Using a heating pre-scan, the Tm-DOTMA 2D-CSI allowed better qualitative visualization of the temperature changes around the titanium screw compared with water phase shift thermometry. Numerical electromagnetic field simulations were also conducted for the evaluation of orientation dependency using the copper wire in 4.7 T (200 MHz). Thermometry approach using Tm-DOTMA can detect smaller temperature changes with decreased scanning time resulting in real-time and sensitive temperature mapping.

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Park, B. , Lizak, M. , Angelone, L. and Rajan, S. (2015) Real Time MR Thermometry Using Tm-DOTMA. Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, 7, 115-125. doi: 10.4236/jemaa.2015.74013.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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