Share This Article:

Coulomb Stress Perturbations Related to the Al Hoceima (Morocco) Earthquakes of 1994 and 2004

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:4184KB) PP. 37-54
DOI: 10.4236/ojer.2015.41004    3,769 Downloads   4,472 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

This paper exposes the results of the study of the stress perturbations caused by the Al Hoceima (Morocco) earthquakes of 1994 and 2004 by means of Coulomb modeling. Modeling was based on the compilation of all the studies carried out after both events, including seismological (location and depth of the main shocks and aftershocks), seismotectonic (source parameters, stress field), geodetic (GPS), tomographic and geological ones. It shows that the first earthquake is likely to have induced the second one when adopting appropriate epicenter locations, source and receiver fault planes. In detail, the model shows that motion along the N23E oriented Bousekkour-Aghbal fault in 1994 activated the eastern segment of a previously unknown NW-SE fault located at its southern end, which in turn originated the 2004 earthquake. The model also provides a suitable explanation for the distribution of the aftershock clusters. Finally, an attempt of prediction of the next event shows that it is likely to occur on NE-SW planes located to the NW (Bokkoya and offshore) and SE (reaching the Nekor fault) of the NW-SE fault, while Al Hoceima city should remain in a shadow zone.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Medina, F. (2015) Coulomb Stress Perturbations Related to the Al Hoceima (Morocco) Earthquakes of 1994 and 2004. Open Journal of Earthquake Research, 4, 37-54. doi: 10.4236/ojer.2015.41004.

References

[1] Harris, R. (1998) Introduction to Special Section: Stress Triggers, Stress Shadows, and Implications for Seismic Hazard. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, B10, 24, 347-24, 358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/98JB01576
[2] Freed, A.M. (2005) Earthquake Triggering by Static, Dynamic, and Postseismic Stress Transfer. Annual Reviews in Earth and Planetary Sciences, 33, 335-367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122505
[3] Toda, S., Stein, R., Lin, J. and Sevilgen, V. (2008) Coulomb 3.1. User Guide.
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/software/coulomb/
[4] King, G.C.P., Stein, R.S. and Lin, J. (1994) Static Stress Changes and the Triggering of Earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 84, 935-953.
[5] Toda, S., Stein, R.S., Richards-Dinger, K. and Bozkurt, S.B. (2005) Forecasting the Evolution of Seismicity in Southern California: Animations Built on Earthquake Stress Transfer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, B05S16, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003415
[6] Toda, S., Stein, R.S., Reasenberg, P.A., Dieterich, J.H. and Yoshida, A. (1998) Stress Transferred by the 1995 Mw = 6.9 Kobe, Japan, Shock: Effect on Aftershocks and Future Earthquake Probabilities. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, B10, 24, 543-24, 565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/98JB00765
[7] Stein, R.S., Barka, A.A. and Dieterich, J.H. (1997) Progressive Failure on the North Anatolian Fault Since 1939 by Earthquake Stress Triggering. Geophysical Journal International, 128, 594-604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1997.tb05321.x
[8] Buforn, E. and Udias, A. (2010) Azores-Tunisia, a Tectonically Complex Plate Boundary. Advances in Geophysics, 52, 139-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2687(10)52003-X
[9] Serpelloni, E., Vannucci, G., Pondrelli, S., Argnani, A., Casula, G., Anzidei, M., Baldi, P. and Gasperini, P. (2007) Kinematics of the Western Africa-Eurasia Plate Boundary from Focal Mechanisms and GPS Data. Geophysical Journal International, 169, 1180-1200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03367.x
[10] Cherkaoui, T.-E., Bensaid, I., Rimi, A. and Harnafi, M. (2007). Réseau sismologique du Département de Physique du Globe, 1937-2007. Univ. Mohammed V-Agdal, Institut Scientifique.
[11] El Alami, S.O., Tadili, B., Cherkaoui, T-E., Medina, F., Ramdani, M., Aït Brahim, L. and Harnafi, M. (1998) The Al Hoceima Earthquake of May, 26, 1994 and Its Aftershocks: A Seismotectonic Study. Annali di Geofisica, 41, 519- 537.
[12] Jabour, N., Kasmi, M., Menzhi, M., Birouk, A., Hni, L., Hahou, Y., Timoulaly, Y. and Sadrane, S. (2004) The February 24th, Al Hoceima Earthquake. CSEM-EMSC Newsletter, 21, 7-10.
[13] Akoglu, A.M., Cakir, Z., Meghraoui, M., Belabbes, S., El Alami, S.O., Ergintav, S. and Akyüz, H.S. (2006) The 1994-2004 Al Hoceima (Morocco) Earthquake Sequence: Conjugate Fault Ruptures Deduced from InSAR. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 252, 467-480.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.10.010
[14] Bensaid, I., Cherkaoui, T.E., Medina, F., Caldeira, B., Buforn, E., Emran, A. and Hahou, Y. (2012) The 1992 Tafilalt Seismic Crisis (Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Journal of Seismology, 16, 35-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10950-011-9248-5
[15] Avallone, A., Selvaggi, G., D’Anastasio, E., D’Agostino, N., Pietrantonio, G., Riguzzi, F., Serpelloni, E., Anzidei, M., Casula, G., Cecere, G., D’Ambrosio, C., De Martino, P., Devoti, R., Falco, L., Mattia, M., Rossi, M., Obrizzo, F., Tammaro, U. and Zarrilli, L. (2010) The RING Network: Improvements to a GPS Velocity Field in the Central Mediterranean. Annals of Geophysics, 53, 39-54.
[16] DeMets, C., Gordon, R.G. and Argus, D.F. (2010) Geologically Current Plate Motions. Geophysical Journal International, 181, 1-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04491.x
[17] Chalouan, A. and Michard, A. (2004) The Alpine Rif Belt (Morocco): A Case of Mountain Building in a Subduction-Subduction-Transform Fault Triple Junction. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 161, 489-519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-2460-7
[18] Weijermars, R. (1987) The Palomares Brittle-Ductile Shear Zone of Southern Spain. Journal of Structural Geology, 9, 139-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(87)90022-8
[19] Dillon, W.P., Robb, J.M., Greene, H.G. and Lucena, J.C. (1980) Evolution of the Continental Margin of Southern Spain and the Alboran Sea. Marine Geology, 36, 205-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(80)90087-0
[20] Fadil, A., Vernant, P., McClusky, S., Reilinger, R., Gomez, F., Ben Sari, D., Mourabit, T., Feigl, K. and Barazangi, M. (2006) Active Tectonics of the Western Mediterranean: Geodetic Evidence for Rollback of a Delaminated Subcontinental Lithospheric Slab beneath the Rif Mountains, Morocco. Geology, 34, 529-532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G22291.1
[21] De Larouzière, J., Bolze, J., Bordet, P., Hernandez, J., Montenat, C. and Ott d’Estevou, P. (1988) The Betic Segment of the Lithospheric Trans-Alboran Shear Zone during the Late Miocene. Tectonophysics, 52, 41-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(88)90028-5
[22] Ammar, A., Mauffret, A., Gorini, C. and Jabour, H. (2007) The Tectonic Structure of the Alboran Margin of Morocco. Revista de la Sociedad Geologica de España, 20, 247-271.
[23] Tahayt, A., Mourabit, T., Rigo, A., Feigl, K.L., Fadil, A., McClusky, S., Reilinger, R., Serroukh, M., Ouazzani- Touhami, A., Ben Sari, D. and Vernant, P. (2008) Mouvements actuels des blocs tectoniques dans l’arc Bético-Rifain à partir des mesures GPS entre 1999 et 2005. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 340, 400-413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2008.02.003
[24] Vernant, P., Fadil, A., Mourabit, T., Ouazar, D., Koulali, A., Davila, J.M., Garate, J., McClusky, S. and Reilinger, R. (2010) Geodetic Constraints on Active Tectonics of the Western Mediterranean: Implications for the Kinematics and Dynamics of the Nubia-Eurasia Plate Boundary Zone. Journal of Geodynamics, 49, 123-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2009.10.007
[25] Cunha, T.A., Matias, L.M., Terrinha, P., Negredo, A.M., Rosas, F., Fernandes, R.M.S. and Pinheiro, L.M. (2012) Neotectonics of the SW Iberia Margin, Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea: A Reassessment Including Recent Structural, Seismic and Geodetic Data. Geophysical Journal International, 188, 850-872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05328.x
[26] Chalouan, A., Gil, A.J., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Ahmamou, M., Ruano, P., de Lacy, M.C., Ruiz-Armenteros, A.M., Benmakhlouf, M. and Riguzzi, F. (2014) Active Faulting in the Frontal Rif Cordillera (Fes region, Morocco): Constraints from GPS Data. Journal of Geodynamics, 77, 110-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2014.01.002
[27] Chalouan, A., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Akil, M., Marín, C., Chabli, A., Ruano, P., Bargach, K., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Benmakhlouf, M., Ahmamou, M. and Gourari, L. (2006) Tectonic Wedge Escape in the Southwestern Front of the Rif Cordillera (Morocco). In: Moratti, G. and Chalouan, A., Eds., Tectonics of the Western Mediterranean and North Africa, Geological Society, London, Special Publication, Vol. 262, 101-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2006.262.01.06
[28] Medina, F. (1995) Present-Day State of Stress in Northern Morocco from Focal Mechanism Analysis. Journal of Struc- tural Geology, 17, 1035-1046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(94)00123-H
[29] Buforn, E., Sanz de Galdeano, C. and Udías, A. (1995) Seismotectonics of the Ibero-Maghrebian Region. Tectonophysics, 248, 247-261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(94)00276-F
[30] Buforn, E., Bezzeghoud, M., Udias, A. and Pro, C. (2004) Seismic Sources on the Iberia-African Plate Boundary and Their Tectonic Implications. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 161, 623-646.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-2466-1
[31] Henares, J., Casado, C.L., de Galdeano, C.S., Delgado, J. and Peláez, J.A. (2003) Stress Fields in the Iberian-Maghrebi Region. Journal of Seismology, 7, 65-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021294015027
[32] Medina, F. and El Alami, S.O. (2006) Focal Mechanisms and State of Stress in the Al Hoceima Area. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Section Sciences de la Terre, 28, 19-30.
[33] Stich, D., Serpelloni, E., Mancilla, F. and Morales, J. (2006) Kinematics of the Iberia-Maghreb Plate Contact from Seismic Moment Tensors and GPS Observations. Tectonophysics, 426, 295-317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2006.08.004
[34] de Vicente, G., Cloetingh, S., Muñoz-Martin, A., Olaiz, A., Stich, D., Vegas, R., Galindo-Zaldivar, J. and Fernandez- Lozano, J. (2008) Inversion of Moment Tensor Focal Mechanisms for Active Stresses around the Microcontinent Iberia: Tectonic Implications. Tectonics, 27, Article ID: TC1009.
[35] Pedrera, A., Ruiz-Constán, A., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Chalouan, A., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Marín-Lechado, C., Ruano, P., Benmakhlouf, M., Akil, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Chabli, A., Ahmamou, M. and González-Castillo, L. (2011) Is There an Active Subduction beneath the Gibraltar Orogenic Arc? Constraints from Pliocene to Present-Day Stress Field. Journal of Geodynamics, 52, 83-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2010.12.003
[36] van der Woerd, J., Dorbath, C., Ousadou, F., Dorbath, L., Delouis, B., Jacques, E., Tapponnier, P., Hahou, Y., Menzhi, M., Frogneux, M. and Haessler, H. (2014) The Al Hoceima Mw 6.4 Earthquake of 24 February 2004 and Its Aftershocks Sequence. Journal of Geodynamics, 77, 89-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2013.12.004
[37] Guillemin, M. and Houzay, J.P. (1982) Le Néogène post-nappe et le Quaternaire du Rif nord-oriental. Stratigraphie et tectonique des bassins de Melilla, du Kert, de Boudinar et du piedmont des Kebdana. Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc, 314, 7-239.
[38] El Azzouzi, M., Bernard-Griffiths, J., Bellon, H., Maury, R.C., Piqué, A., Fourcade, S., Cotten, J. and Hernandez, J. (1999) Evolution des sources du volcanisme marocain au cours du Néogene. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, Série 2, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes, 329, 95-102.
[39] Thauvin, S. (1971) La zone rifaine. In: Service géologique du Maroc, Ed., Ressources en eau du Maroc. Tome I: Domaines du Rif et du Maroc oriental, Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc, Rabat, Vol. 231, 69-79.
[40] Azdimousa, A., Poupeau, G., Rezqi, H., Asebriy, L., Bourgois, J. and Ait Brahim, L. (2006) Géodynamique des bordures méridionales de la mer d’Alboran; application de la stratigraphie séquentielle dans le bassin néogène de Boudinar (Rif oriental, Maroc). Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Section Sciences de la Terre, 28, 9-18.
[41] Calvert, A., Gomez, F., Seber, D., Barazangi, M., Jabour, N., Ibenbrahim, A. and Demnati, A. (1997) An Integrated Geophysical Investigation of Recent Seismicity in the Al-Hoceima Region of North Morocco. Bulletin of the Seismo- logical Society of America, 87, 637-651.
[42] D’Acremont, E., Gutscher, M-A., Rabaute, A., Mercier de Lépinay, B., Lafosse, M., Poort, J., Ammar, A., Tahayt, A., Le Roy, P., Smit, J., Do Couto, D., Cancouët, R., Prunier, C., Ercilla, G. and Gorini, C. (2014) High-Resolution Imagery of Active Faulting Offshore Al Hoceima. Tectonophysics, 632, 160-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2014.06.008
[43] Leblanc, D. and Olivier, P. (1984) Role of Strike-Slip Faults in the Betic-Rifian Orogeny. Tectonophysics, 101, 345- 355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(84)90120-3
[44] Cherkaoui, T-E. (1988) Fichier des séismes du Maroc et des régions limitrophes 1901-1984. Travaux de l’Institut Sci- entifique, Série Géologie et Géographie physique, 17, 1-158.
[45] Hatzfeld, D., Caillot, V., Cherkaoui, T-E., Jebli, H. and Medina, F. (1993) Microearthquake Seismicity and Fault Plane Solutions Study around the Nékor Strike-Slip Fault, Morocco. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 120, 31-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(93)90021-Z
[46] Poujol, A., Ritz, J-F., Tahayt, A., Vernant, P., Condomines, M., Blard, P-H., Billant, J., Vacher, L., Tibart, B., Hni, L. and Koulali Idrissi, A. (2014) Active Tectonics of the Northern Rif (Morocco) from Geomorphic and Geochronolog- ical Data. Journal of Geodynamics, 77, 70-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2014.01.004
[47] Mourier, T. (1982) Etude géologique et structurale du Massif des Bokkoya (Rif Oriental, Maroc). 3ème Cycle Thesis, Orsay.
[48] Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Chalouan, A., Azzouz, O., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Anahnah, F., Ameza, L., Ruano, P., Pedrera, A., Ruiz-Constán, A., Marín-Lechado, C., Benmakhlouf, M., López-Garrido, A.V., Ahmamou, M., Saji, R., Roldán-García, F.J., Akil, M. and Chabli, A. (2009) Are the Seismological and Geological Observations of the Al Hoceima (Morocco, Rif) 2004 Earthquake (M = 6.3) Contradictory? Tectonophysics, 475, 59-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2008.11.018
[49] Fullea, J., Fernàndez, M., Afonso, J.C., Vergés, J. and Zeyen, H. (2010) The Structure and Evolution of the Litho- sphere-Asthenosphere Boundary beneath the Atlantic-Mediterranean Transition Region. Lithos, 120, 74-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2010.03.003
[50] Mancilla, F., Stich, D., Morales, J., Julià, J., Diaz, J., Pazos, A., Cordoba, D., Pulgar, J.A., Ibarra, P., Harnafi, M. and Gonzalez-Lodeiro, F. (2012) Crustal Thickness Variations in Northern Morocco. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, Article ID: B02312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008608
[51] Rimi, A., Fernandez, M., Manar, A., Matsushima, J., Okubo, Y., Morel, J.L., Winckel, A. and Zeyen, H. (2005) Geothermal Anomalies and Analysis of Gravity, Fracturing and Magnetic Features in Morocco. World Geothermal Congress, Antalya, 24-29 April 2005, 1-10.
[52] Calvert, A., Sandvol, E., Seber, D., Barazangi, M., Roecker, S., Mourabit, T., Vidal, F., Alguacil, G. and Jabour, N. (2000) Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle beneath the Alboran Region of the Western Mediterranean: Constraints from Travel time Tomography. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 10871-10898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900024
[53] Serrano, I., Zhao, D., Morales, J. and Torcal, F. (2003) Seismic Tomography from Local Crustal Earthquakes beneath Eastern Rif Mountains of Morocco. Tectonophysics, 367, 187-201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00100-8
[54] Timoulali, Y., Djellit, H., Hahou, Y., Jabour, N. and Merrouch, R. (2014) New Evidence of Delamination in the Western Alboran Sea: Geodynamic Evolution of the Alboran Domain and Its Margins. Journal of Geodynamics, 117, 206- 216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2013.10.005
[55] Elmrabet, T. (2005) Les tremblements de terre majeurs dans la région du Maghreb, et leurs conséquences sur l’homme et l’environnement. Ed. CNRST-LAG, Rabat. (In Arabic)
[56] McKenzie, D. (1972) Active Tectonics of the Mediterranean Region. Geophysical Journal International, 30, 109-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1972.tb02351.x
[57] Udias, A., Lopez-Arroyo, A.L. and Mezcua, J. (1976) Seismotectonic of the Azores-Alboran Region. Tectonophysics, 31, 259-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(76)90121-9
[58] El Alami, S.O., Tadili, B., Brahim, L.A. and Mouayn, I. (2004) Seismicity of Morocco for the period 1987-1994. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 161, 969-982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-2503-0
[59] Cherkaoui, T.E., Hatzfeld, D., Jebli, H., Medina, F. and Caillot, V. (1990) Etude microsismique de la région d’A1 Hoceima. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, 14, 25-34.
[60] Buforn, E., Bezzeghoud, M., del Fresno, C., Borges, J.F., Madariaga, R. and Udias, A. (2005) Study of the Fracture Process of Alhoceima Earthquake (24/02/2004, Mw=6.2) from Regional and Teleseismic Data. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 7, Article ID: 05301.
[61] Tahayt, A., Feigl, K.L., Mourabit, T., Rigo, A., Reilinger, R., McClusky, S., Fadil, A., Berthier, E., Dorbath, L., Serroukh, M., Gomez, F. and Ben Sari, D. (2009) The Al Hoceima (Morocco) Earthquake of 24 February 2004, Analysis and Interpretation of Data from ENVISAT ASAR and SPOT5 Validated by Ground-Based Observations. Remote Sensing of Environment, 113, 306-316.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2008.09.015
[62] Medina, F. (2008) Catalogue of Focal Mechanisms of Moroccan Earthquakes for the Period 1959-2007. Documents de l’Institut Scientifique Rabat, 23, 1-47.
[63] Stich, D., Martin, R. and Morales, J. (2010) Moment Tensor Inversion for Iberia-Maghreb Earthquakes 2005-2008. Tectonophysics, 483, 390-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.11.006
[64] Bensaid, I., Buforn, E., Cherkaoui, T.E., Medina, F. and Hahou, Y. (2011) New Fault-Plane Solutions of Moroccan Earthquakes for the 2005-2008 Period. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Section Sciences de la Terre, 33, 47- 52.
[65] Medina, F., Bensaid, I. and Tangi, A. (2011) Catalogue of Focal Mechanisms of Moroccan Earthquakes for the Period 1959-2007; Analysis of Parameters. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, Rabat, Section Sciences de la Terre, 33, 37-46.
[66] Beeler, N.M., Simpson, R.W., Hickman, S.H. and Lockner, D.A. (2000) Pore Fluid Pressure, Apparent Friction, and Coulomb Failure. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 25533-25542.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000JB900119
[67] Steacey, S., Nalbant, S.S., McCloskey, J., Nostro, C., Scotti, O. and Baumont, D. (2005) Onto What Planes Should Coulomb Stress Perturbations Be Resolved? Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, Article ID: B05S15.
[68] Ait Brahim, L., Nakhcha, C., Tadili, B., El Mrabet, T. and Jabour, N. (2004) Structural Analysis and Interpretation of the Surface Deformations of the February 24th, 2004 Al Hoceima Earthquake. CSEM-EMSC Newsletter, 21, 7-10.
[69] Dorbath, L., Hahou, Y., Delouis, B., Dorbath, C., Van Der Woerde, J., Badrane, S., Frogneux, M., Haessler, H., Jacques, E., Menzhi, M. and Tapponnier, P. (2005) Etudes sismologiques sur le séisme d’Al Hoceima: Localisation et mécanisme du choc principal et des répliques, contraintes et structure de la zone épicentrale. Colloque International Séisme d’Al Hoceima: Bilan et perspectives, Al Hoceima, 24-26 février 2005, 22.
[70] Bezzeghoud, M. and Buforn, E. (1999) Source Parameters of the 1992 Melilla (Spain, Mw = 4.8), 1994 Alhoceima (Morocco, Mw = 5.8) and 1994 Mascara (Algeria, Mw = 5.7) Earthquakes and Seismotectonic Implications. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 89, 359-372.
[71] Cakir, Z., Meghraoui, M., Akoglu, A.M., Jabour, N., Belabbes, S. and Ait Brahim, L. (2006) Surface Deformation Associated with the Mw 6.4, 24 February 2004 Al Hoceima, Morocco, Earthquake Deduced from InSAR: Implications for the Active Tectonics Along North Africa. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 96, 59-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120050108
[72] Biggs, J., Bergman, E., Emmerson, B., Funning, G.J., Jackson, J., Parsons, B. and Wright, T.J. (2006) Fault Identification for Buried Strike-Slip Earthquakes Using InSAR: The 1994 and 2004 Al Hoceima, Morocco Earthquakes. Geophysical Journal International, 166, 1347-1362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03071.x
[73] González, P.J., Palano, M. and Fernández, J. (2010) Study of the Present-Day Tectonics and Seismogenetic Sources of the Al-Hoceima Region (Morocco) Using GPS and MTInsar. Proceedings of the Fringe 2009 Workshop, 30 November-4 December 2009, Frascati. ESA Special Publication-677, 7 p. http://earth.eo.esa.int/workshops/fringe09/proceedings/papers/p1_6gonz.pdf
[74] Angelier, J. and Mechler, P. (1977) Sur une méthode graphique de recherche des contraintes principales également utilisable en tectonique et en séismologie: La méthode des dièdres droits. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 19, 1309-1318. http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.S7-XIX.6.1309
[75] Marrett, R.A. and Allmendinger, R.W. (1990) Kinematic Analysis of Fault-Slip Data. Journal of Structural Geology, 12, 973-986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(90)90093-E
[76] Angelier, J. and Goguel, J. (1979) Sur une méthode simple de détermination des axes principaux des contraintes pour une population de failles. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, 288, 307-310.
[77] Etchecopar, A., Vasseur, G. and Daignieres, M. (1981) An Inverse Problem in Microtectonics for the Determination of Stress Tensors from Fault Striation Analysis. Journal of Structural Geology, 3, 51-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(81)90056-0
[78] Michael, A.J. (1984) Determination of Stress from Slip Data: Faults and Folds. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 11517-11526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB089iB13p11517
[79] Michael, A.J. (1987) Use of Focal Mechanisms to Determine Stress: A Control Study. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 357-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB092iB01p00357
[80] Carey-Gailhardis, E. and Mercier, J-L. (1987) A Numerical Method for Determining the State of Stress Using Focal Mechanisms of Earthquake Populations: Application to Tibetan Teleseisms and Microseismicity of Southern Peru. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 82, 165-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(87)90117-8
[81] Rivera, L. and Cisternas, A. (1990) Stress Tensor and Fault Plane Solutions for a Population of Earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 80, 600-614.
[82] Gephart, J. (1990) A Fortran Program for Inverting Fault/Slickenside and Earthquake Focal Mechanism Data to Obtain the Regional Stress Tensor. Computers and Geosciences, 16, 953-989.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0098-3004(90)90105-3
[83] Reches, Z., Baer, G. and Hatzor, Y. (1992) Constraints on the Strength of the Upper Crust from Stress Inversion of Slip Data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 12481-12493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/90JB02258
[84] Stich, D., Mancilla, F., Baumont, D. and Morales, J. (2005) Source Analysis of the Mw 6.3 2004 Al Hoceima Earthquake (Morocco) Using Regional Apparent Source Time Functions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, Article ID: B06306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003366
[85] Angelier, J. (1990) Inversion of Field Data in Fault Tectonics to Obtain the Regional Stress—III. A New Rapid Direct Inversion Method by Analytical Means. Geophysical Journal International, 103, 363-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1990.tb01777.x
[86] Ramdani, M. and Tadili, B. (1982) Evaluation du risque sismique dans la région de Nador. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique, 6, 53-61.
[87] Vaccari, F., Tadili, B., El Qadi, A., Ramdani, M., Ait Brahim, L. and Limouri, M. (2001) Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment for North Morocco. Journal of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, 3, 1-12.
[88] Zitellini, N., Gràcia, E., Matias, L., Terrinha, P., Abreu, M.A., DeAlteriis, G., Henriet, J.P., Dañobeitia, J.J., Masson, D.J., Mulder, T., Ramella, R., Somoza, L. and Diez, S. (2009) The Quest of the Africa-Eurasia Plate Boundary West of the Strait of Gibraltar. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 280, 13-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.12.005
[89] Maurer, G. (1968) Les montagnes du Rif central: Etude géomorphologique. Doctorat d’Etat Thesis, Paris.
[90] Andrieux, J. (1971) La structure du Rif central. Etude des relations entre la tectonique en compression et les nappes de glissement dans un tronçon de la chaîne alpine. Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc, 235, 1-155.
[91] Suter, G. (1980) Carte structurale de la chaîne rifaine au 1/500,000. Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc, 245b.
[92] Frizon de Lamotte, D. (1982) Contribution à l’étude de l’évolution structurale du Rif oriental. Notes et Mémoires du Service géologique du Maroc, 314, 239-309.
[93] Morel, J-L. (1987) Evolution récente de l’orogène rifain et de son avant-pays depuis la fin de la mise en place des nappes (Rif, Maroc). Mém. Géodiffusion, Orsay.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.