Inhibition of EGFR Suppresses Ethyl Alcohol and Tobacco Cell Effects on Growth of Human Oral Keratinocytes and Human Papillomavirus 16 Entry as a Function of Furin


Background: Reported are increased risks for malignant transformation in human oral keratinocytes (HOK) from ethyl alcohol (ETOH), tobacco products or human papilloma virus oncogenic subtype 16 (HPV 16) infections. We examined various HOK cell responses to these factors to show inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also inhibits furin; proprotein convertase (FC) and HPV 16 entry in HOK. Methods: Immortalized HOK by HPV 16 (HPV 16B) or human telomerase (hTERT); primary foreskin keratinocytes (NHFK), primary HOK, buccal keratinocytes (NHBK) and oral SCC-25 were treated with dibenz[a,l]pyrene (DBP), anthraquinone; nitrosamine (NNAL) or ethyl alcohol (ETOH) and acetaldehyde (AA). ETOH was tested for synthesis of malondialdehyde (MDA) and alcohol dehydrogenase expression (ADH). ETOH, and PAH were evaluated by Western immunoblot for oncogene changes, and phosphorylated EGFR expression. Inhibition of EGFR by WZ4002 and Erlotinib and/or carcinogens effect on HPV 16 entry were studied. A green fluorescent pseudovirus (PsV); chloromethylketone (CMK) an inhibitor of furin activity and Western immunoblot of furin cell distribution further characterized HPV 16 entry. Results: ETOH (10 μM) increased expression of phosphorylated EGFR and HPV 16 entry through furin activity, and membrane, nuclear and cytoskeletal accumulations. CMK suppressed HPV 16 entry and blockage of ADH while aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enhanced HPV 16 entry. Similarly PAH, DBP (4-8 nM), anthraquinone (98 nM) and NNAL (6.9 μM) enhanced HPV 16 entry through furin activity and membrane, nuclear and cytoskeletal accumulations. Furthermore, WZ4002 and Erlotinib suppressed expressions of phosphorylated EGFR, FC activity, and HPV 16 entry. ETOH and DBP treatments also enhanced expressions of protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), and p21waf1 while depressed p16 and p27KIP1 expressions in HOK/HPV 16B cells. Conclusion: EGFR inhibitors are candidates for suppression of alcohol and tobacco effects on EGFR phosphorylated expression; keratinocyte growth, and HPV 16 entry and prevention treatment for HPV related diseases.

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Schwartz, J. , Munaretto, A. , Bagchi, S. , Crowe, D. and Izaguirre, G. (2015) Inhibition of EGFR Suppresses Ethyl Alcohol and Tobacco Cell Effects on Growth of Human Oral Keratinocytes and Human Papillomavirus 16 Entry as a Function of Furin. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 6, 90-108. doi: 10.4236/jct.2015.61010.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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