A Comparison of the Growth and Asexual Reproduction by Cryphonectria parasitica Isolates Infected with Hypoviruses CHV3-County Line, CHV1-Euro7, and CHV1-Ep713


The impact of chestnut blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica, has diminished in Europe due to a natural biological control caused by hypovirus infection. Hypovirulence-mediated biological control has been far less successful in North America meriting further evaluation of field isolates that have the ability to produce non-lethal cankers, generate hypovirulent inoculum, and exhibit a greater ecological fitness in forest systems. In this study, Cryphonectria hypoviruses (CHV) CHV3-County Line, CHV1-Euro7, and CHV1-Ep713 were evaluated in five different isolates of C. parasitica. One hundred and eighty cankers representing each treatment combination were initiated on American chestnut sprouts in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, USA. The size of cankers, the persistence of hypovirulent (HV) isolates, stroma production, and hypovirus transmission to conidia were assessed four and 12 months after canker expansion. CHV3-County Line infected isolates produced significantly smaller cankers than the isolates infected with either CHV1-type. With regard to CHV1-Euro7 isolates, the fungal genome appeared to contribute to the differences in canker size. After four months, HV isolates harboring either CHV1-type (30%) were retrieved at a significantly higher rate than isolates containing CHV3-County Line (14%). After 12 months, the HV recovery was similar among the three hypoviruses indicating smaller cankers will maintain their HV status after one year. Very few stroma were produced after one year in the field from HV isolates. In vitro, CHV3-County Line (49%) had a significantly lower rate of hypovirus transmission to conidia when compared to CHV1-Euro7 (87%) and CHV1-Ep713 (80%). Significant differences existed among the five different isolates indicating HV transmission is dependent on the fungal genome. This research provided additional evidence that each hypovirus interacts with its host differently and certain isolate/hypovirus combinations have better biological control potential than others.

Share and Cite:

Bauman, J. (2015) A Comparison of the Growth and Asexual Reproduction by Cryphonectria parasitica Isolates Infected with Hypoviruses CHV3-County Line, CHV1-Euro7, and CHV1-Ep713. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 73-83. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61009.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Grente, J. and Berthelay-Sauret, S. (1978) Biological Control of Chestnut Blight. In: MacDonald, W.L., Cech, F.C., Luchok, J. and Smith, H.C., Eds., Proceedings of the American Chestnut Symposium, West Virginia University Press, Morgantown, 30-34.
[2] Robin, C. and Heiniger, U. (2001) Chestnut Blight in Europe: Diversity of Cryphonectria parasitica, Hypovirulence and Biocontrol. Forest Snow and Landscape Research, 76, 361-367.
[3] Dodds, J.A. (1980) Association of Type 1 Viral-Like dsRNA with Club-Shaped Particles in Hypovirulent Strains of Endothia parasitica. Virology, 107, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0042-6822(80)90267-6
[4] Newhouse, J.R., Hoch, H.C. and MacDonald, W.L. (1983) The Ultrastructure of Endothia parasitica. Comparison of a Virulent with a Hypovirulent Isolate. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61, 389-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b83-046
[5] Chen, B., Chen, C.-H., Bowman, B. and Nuss, D. (1996) Phenotypic Changes Associated with Wild-Type and Mutant Hypovirus RNA Transfection of Plant Pathogenic Fungi Phylogenetically Related to Cryphonectria parasitica. Phytopathology, 86, 301-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-86-301
[6] Rigling, D. and Hillman, B.I. (2002) Genus Hypovirus (Hypoviridae). In: Tidona, C.A. and Darai, G., Eds., The Springer Index of Viruses, Springer, Berlin, New York, 456-460.
[7] Nuss, D.L., Hillman, B.I., Rigling, D., Suzuki, N. (2005) Family Hypoviridae. In: Franquet, C.M., Mayo, M.A., Maniloff, J., Desselberger, U. and Ball, L.A., Eds., Virus Taxonomy: VIIIth Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Virueses, Elsevier/Academic Press, London, 597-601.
[8] Hillman, B.I., Halpern, B.T. and Brown, M.P. (1994) A Viral dsRNA Element of the Chestnut Blight Fungus with a Distinct Genetic Organization. Virology, 201, 241-250.
[9] Hillman, B.I. and Suzuki, N. (2004) Viruses of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Advances in Virus Research, 63, 423-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3527(04)63007-7
[10] Linder-Basso, D., Dynek, J.N. and Hillman, B.I. (2005) Genome Analysis of Cryphonectria Hypovirus 4, the Most Common Hypovirus Species in North America. Virology, 337, 192-203.
[11] Allemann, C., Hoegger, P., Heiniger, U. and Rigling, D. (1999) Genetic Variation of Cryphonectria Hypoviruses (CHV1) in Europe, Assessed Using RFLP Markers. Molecular Ecology, 8, 843-854. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.1999.00639.x
[12] Robin, C., Lanz, S., Soutrenon, A. and Riglig, D. (2010) Dominance of Natural over Released Biological Control Agents of the Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in South-Eastern France Is Associated with Fitness-Related Traits. Biological Control, 53, 55-61.
[13] Peters, F.S., Holweg, C.L., Rigling, D. and Metzler, B. (2012.) Chestnut Blight in South-Western Germany: Multiple Introductions of Cryphonectria parasitica and Slow Hypovirus Spread. Forest Pathology, 42, 397-404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2012.00773.x
[14] Chen, B. and Nuss, D. (1999) Infectious cDNA Clone of Hypovirus CHV1-Euro 7: A Comparative Virology Approach to Investigate Virus Mediated Hypovirulence of Chestnut Blight Fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Journal of Virology, 73, 985-992.
[15] Peever, T.L., Liu, Y.C. and Milgroom, M.G. (1997) Diversity of Hypoviruses and Other Double-Stranded RNAs in Cryphonectria parasitica in North America. Phytopathology, 87, 1026-1033.
[16] Milgroom, M.G. and Cortesi, P. (2004) Biological Control of Chestnut Blight with Hypovirulence: A Critical Analysis. Annual Review Phytopathology, 42, 311-338.
[17] Hillman, B.I., Foglia, R. and Yuan, W. (2000) Satellite and Defective RNAs of Cryphonectria hypovirus 3-Grand Haven 2, a Virus Species in the Family Hypoviridae with a Single Open Reading Frame. Virology, 276, 181-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.2000.0548
[18] Smart, C.D., Yuan, W., Foglia, R., Nuss, D.L., Fulbright, D.W. and Hillman, B.I. (1999) Cryphonectria hypovirus 3, a Virus Species in the Family Hypoviridae with a Single Open Reading Frame. Virology, 265, 66-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.1999.0039
[19] Turchetti, T. and Maresi, G. (2006) Management of Diseases in Chestnut Orchards and Stands: A Significant Prospect. Advances in Horticultural Science, 20, 33-39.
[20] Turchetti, T., Ferretti, F. and Maresi, G. (2008) Natural Spread of Cryphonectria parasitica and Persistence of Hypovirulence in Three Italian Coppice Chestnut Stands. Forest Pathology, 38, 227-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0329.2008.00557.x
[21] Anagnostakis, S.L. (1988) Cryphonectria parasitica, Cause of Chestnut Blight. Advances in Plant Pathology, 6, 123-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-033706-4.50011-6
[22] MacDonald, W.L. and Fulbright, D.W. (1991) Biological Control of Chestnut Blight: Use and Limitations of Transmissible Hypovirulence. Plant Disease, 75, 656-660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PD-75-053
[23] Anagnostakis, S.L. (1987) Chestnut Blight: The Classical Problem of an Introduced Pathogen. Mycologia, 79, 23-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3807741
[24] Cortesi, P., McCullough, C.E., Song, H., Lin, H. and Milgroom, M.G. (2001) Genetic Control of Horizontal Virus Transmission in the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Genetics, 159,107-118.
[25] Papazova-Anakieva, I., Sotirovski, K., Cortesi, K. and Milgroom, M.G. (2008) Horizontal Transmission of Hypovirusus between Vegetative Compatibility Types of Cryphonectria parasitica in Macedonia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 120, 35-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10658-007-9191-z
[26] Bryner, S.F. and Rigling, D. (2012) Virulence Not Only Costs but Also Benefits the Transmission of a Fungal Virus. Evolution, 66, 2540-2250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01637.x
[27] Elliston, J.E. (1977) Pathogenicity and Sporulation of Normal and Diseased Strains of Endothia parasitica in American Chestnut. In: MacDonald, W.L., Cech, F.C., Luchok, J. and Smith, H.C., Eds., Proceedings of American Chestnut Symposium, West Virginia University Press, Morgantown, 95-100.
[28] Peever, T.L., Liu, Y., Cortesi, P. and Milgroom, M. (2000) Variation in Tolerance and Virulence in the Chestnut Blight Fungus-Hypovirus Interaction. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 4863-4869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.11.4863-4869.2000
[29] Bryner, S F. and Rigling, D. (2012) Hypovirus Virulence and Vegetative Incompatibility in Populations of the Chestnut Blight Fungus. Phytopathology, 102, 1161-1167.
[30] Chen, B., Geletka, L.M. and Nuss, D.L. (2000) Using Chimeric Hypoviruses to Fine-Tune the Interaction between a Pathogenic Fungus and Its Plant Host. Journal of Virology, 74, 7562-7567.
[31] Liu, Y.C., Double, M.L., MacDonad, W.L. and Milgroom, M.G. (2002) Persistence of Cryphonectria Hypoviruses after Their Release for Biological Control of Chestnut Blight in West Virginia Forests. Forest Pathology, 32, 345-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0329.2002.00299.x
[32] Elliston, J.E. (1985) Preliminary Evidence for Two Debilitating Cytoplasmic Agents in a Strain of Endothia parasitica from Western Michigan. Phytopathology, 75, 170-173.
[33] Hoegger, P.J., Heiniger, U., Holdenrieder, O. and Rigling, D. (2003) Differential Transfer and Dissemination of Hypovirus and Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes of a Hypovirus-Infected Cryphonectria parasitic Strain after Introduction into a Natural Population. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 3767-3771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.7.3767-3771.2003
[34] McCarroll, D.R. and Thor, E. (1978) Biological Control of Chestnut Blight. In: MacDonald, W.L., Cech, F.C., Luchok, J. and Smith, H.C., Eds., Proceedings of American Chestnut Symposium, West Virginia University Press, Morgantown, 70-72.
[35] Hebard, F.V. and Shain, L. (1988) Effects of Virulent Endothia parasitica and Their Metabolites on Ethylene Production by Bark of American and Chinese Chestnut and Scarlet Oak. Phytopathology, 78, 841-845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-78-841

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.