Share This Article:

Importance of Bacteriophage in Combating Hospital-Acquired Infection (HAI)

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2528KB) PP. 1192-1201
DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.513131    3,380 Downloads   4,076 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Bacteriophages have a potentially important role to play in reducing the global incidence of Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI). Their use should be focused on reducing the use and over-use of antibiotics as part of integrated control measures in conjunction with various vaccination, sanitation procedures and prophylactic and treatment regimens. Bacteriophages offer exquisite specificity and efficacy in killing target bacterial strains, a phenomenon known for almost 100 years. However, their efficacy with respect to broad-spectrum antibiotics is poor due to the highly strain-selective nature of their killing and their rapid elimination from the body. Bacteriophage killing is a naturally-occurring process capable of limiting and eliminating bacterial populations in humans. This is achieved through exponential amplification of their number, if and when, they encounter a target bacterium. Unfortunately, processes employed for their commercial production today do not meet the same rigour as dictated for pharmaceutical products. Batch-to-batch reproducibility and molecular definition of target and phage strains must be demanded before their clinical use can become widespread. Elsewhere, historical data have demonstrated safety in humans beyond any doubt. Because patients continue to die in our healthcare centers internationally, the use of bacteriophage to help fight HAI should be reassessed. Here, relevant literature is reviewed.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Humphery-Smith, I. (2014) Importance of Bacteriophage in Combating Hospital-Acquired Infection (HAI). Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 5, 1192-1201. doi: 10.4236/pp.2014.513131.

References

[1] WHO (2014) Antimicrobical Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1-257.
[2] (2013) Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the USA. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 1-114.
[3] Ducel, G., Fabry, J. and Nicolle, L. (2002) Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections: A Practical Guide. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1-64.
[4] Coella, R., Glenister, H., Fereres, J., Bartlett, C., Leigh, D., Sedgwick, J. and Cooke, E.M. (1993) The Cost of Infection in Surgical Patients: A Case-Control Study. Journal of Hospital Infection, 25, 239-250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0195-6701(93)90110-L
[5] Rosenthal, V.D., Maki, D.G., Mehta, Y., Apisarnthanarak, A., Fisher, D., Medeiros, E.A., et al. (2012) International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Report, Data Summary of 36 Countries, for 2004-2009. American Journal of Infection Control, 40, 396-407.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2011.05.020
[6] Lu, T.K. and Koeris, M.S. (2011) The Next Generation of Bacteriophage Therapy. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 14, 524-531.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2011.07.028
[7] Keen, E.C. (2012) Phage Therapy: Concept to Cure. Frontiers in Microbiology, 3, 1-3.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00238
[8] Dublanchet, A. and Bourne, S. (2007) The Epic of Phage Therapy. Canadian Journal of Infectious Disease and Medical Microbiology, 18, 15-18.
[9] Kutter, E., De Vos, D., Gvasalia, G., Alavidze, Z., Gogokhia, L., Kuhl, S. and Abendon, S.T. (2010) Phage Therapy in Clinical Practice: Treatment of Human Infections. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 11, 69-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920110790725401
[10] Abedon, S.T., Kuhl, S.J., Blasdel, B.G. and Kutter, E.M. (2011) Phage Treatment of Human Infections. Bacteriophage, 1, 66-85.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/bact.1.2.15845
[11] Chanishvili, N. (2012) A Literature Review of the Practical Application of Bacteriophage Research. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge.
[12] Wittebole, X., Roock, S.D. and Opal, S.M. (2014) A Historical Overview of Bacteriophage Therapy as an Alternative to Antibiotics for the Treatment of Bacterial Pathogens. Virulence, 5, 226-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/viru.25991
[13] Chan, K.B., Abedon, S.T. and Loc-Carrillo, C. (2013) Phage Cocktails and the Future of Phage Therapy. Future Microbiology, 8, 769-783.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb.13.47
[14] Merril, C.R., Scholl, D. and Adhya, S.L. (2003) The Prospect for Bactreriopharge Therapy in Western Medicine. Nature Reviews in Drug Discovery, 2, 489-497.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd1111
[15] Fruciano, D.E. and Bourne, S. (2007) Phage as an Antimicrobial Agent: D’Herelle’s Heretical Theories and Their Role in the Decline of Phage Prophylaxis in the West. Canadian Journal of Infectious Disease and Medical Microbiology, 18, 19-26.
[16] Harper, D.R., Anderson, J. and Enright, M.C. (2011) Phage Therapy: Delivering on the Promise. Therapeutic Delivery, 2, 935-947.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde.11.64
[17] Borysowski, J. (2014) Phage Therapy: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk.
[18] Atterbury, R.J. (2009) Bacteriophage Biocontrol in Animals and Meat Products. Microbial Biotechnology, 2, 601-612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7915.2009.00089.x
[19] Traore, H. (2007) Low-Cost Rapid Detection of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis Using Bacteriophage in Kampula, Uganda. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 6, 1-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-6-1
[20] Pai, M. and Kalantri, S.P. (2005) Bacteriophage-Based Tests for Tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 23, 149-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0255-0857.16584
[21] Albert, H., Trollip, A.P., Mole, R.J., Hatch, S.J. and Blumberg, L. (2002) Rapid Indication of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis from Liquid Cultures Using FAST Plaque TB-RIF, a Manual Phage-Based Test. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 6, 523-528.
[22] Albert, H., Trollip, A., Seaman, T. and Mole, R.J. (2004) Simple, Phage-Based (FAST Plaque) Technology to Determine Rifampicin Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Directly from Sputum. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 8, 1114-1119.
[23] Jain, P., Thaler, D.S., Maiga, M., Timmins, G.S., Bishai, W.R., Hatfull, G.F., Larsen, M.H. and Jacobs, W.R. (2011) Reporter Phage and Breath Tests: Emerging Phenotypic Assays for Diagnosing Active Tuberculosis, Antibiotic Resistance, and Treatment Efficacy. Journal of Infectious Disease, 204, 142-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir454
[24] Schmelcher, M. and Loessner, M.J. (2014) Application of Bacteriophages for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens. Bacteriophage, 4, e28137.
[25] Hendrix, R.W. (1999) Evolutionary Relationships among Diverse Bacteriophages and Prophages—All the World’s a Phage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 2192-2197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.5.2192
[26] Frenkel, D. and Solomon, B. (2001) Filamentous Phage as Vector-Mediated Antibody Delivery to the Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 5675-5679.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.072027199
[27] Dubos, R.J., Straus, J.H. and Pierce, C. (1943) The Multiplication of Bacteriophage in Vivo and Its Protective Effect against an Experimental Infection with Shigella dysenteriae. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 78, 161-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.78.3.161
[28] Merril, C.R., Friedman, T.B., Attallah, A.F., Geier, M.R., Krell, K. and Yarkin, R. (1972) Isolation of Bacteriophages from Commercial Sera. In Vitro, 8, 91-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02615965
[29] Merril, C.R. (1975) Phage in Human Vaccines. Science Magazine, 188, 8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.188.4183.8
[30] Kolata, G.B. (1975) Phage in Live Virus Vaccines: Are They Harmful to People? Science Magazine, 187, 522-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.187.4176.522
[31] Milstien, B.J., Walker, J.R. and Petricciane, J.C. (1977) Bacteriophages in Live Virus Vaccines: Lack of Evidence for Effects on the Genome of Rhesus Monkeys. Science Magazine, 197, 469-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.406673
[32] Hung, C.H., Kuo, C.F., Wang, C.H., Wu, C.M. and Tsao, N. (2011) Experimental Phage Therapy in Treating Klebsiella pneumoniae-Mediated Liver Abscesses and Bacteremia in Mice. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 55, 1358-1365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01123-10
[33] Biswas, B., Adhya, S., Washart, P., Paul, B., Trostel, A.N., Powell, B., Carlton, R. and Merril, C.R. (2002) Bacteriophage Therapy Rescues Mice Bacteremic from a Clinical Isolate of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium. Infection and Immunology, 70, 204-210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.1.204-210.2002
[34] Gupta, R. and Prasad, Y. (2011) Efficacy of Polyvalent Bacteriophage P-27/HP to Control Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Human Infections. Current Microbiology, 62, 255-260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-010-9699-x
[35] Wang, J., Hu, B., Xu, M., Yan, Q., Lui, S., Zhu, X., Sun, Z., Tao, D., Ding, L., Reed, E., Gong, J., Li, Q. and Hu, J. (2005) Therapeutic Effectiveness of Bacteriophages in the Rescue of Mice with Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Bacteremia. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 17, 347-355.
[36] Wagenaar, J.A., Van Bergen, M.A.P., Mueller, M.A., Wassenaar, T.M. and Carlton, R.M. (2005) Phage Therapy Reduces Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Broilers. Veterinary Microbiology, 109, 275-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.06.002
[37] Sunagar, R., Patil, S.A. and Chandrakanth, R.K. (2010) Bacteriophage Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice. Research in Microbiology, 161, 854-860.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2010.09.011
[38] Barrow, P., Lovell, M. and Berchieri Jr., A. (1998) Use of Lytic Bacteriophage for Control of Experimental Escherichia coli Septicemia and Meningitis in Chickens and Calves. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 5, 294-298.
[39] Merril, C., Biswas, B., Carlton, R.C., Jensen, N., Greed, G.J., Zullo, S. and Adhya, S. (1996) Long-Circulating Bacteriophage as Antibacterial Agents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93, 3188-3192.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.8.3188
[40] Inchley, C.J. (1969) Activity of Mouse Kupffer Cells Following Intravenous Injection of T4 Bacteriophage. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 5, 173-187.
[41] Merabishvili, M., Pirnay, J.P., Verbeken, G., Chanishvili, N., Tediashvili, M., Lashkhi, N., Glonti, T., Krylov, V., Mast, J., Parys, L.V., Lavigne, R., Volckaert, G., Mattheus, W., Verween, G., De Corte, P., Rose, T., Jennes, S., Zizi, M., De Vos, D. and Vaneechoutte, M. (2009) Quality-Controlled Small-Scale Production of a Well-Defined Bacteriophage Cocktail for Use in Human Clinical Trials. PLoS ONE, 4, e4944.
[42] Knouf, E.G., Ward, W.E., Reichle, P.A., Bower, A.G. and Hamilton, P.M. (1946) Treatment of Typhoid Fever with Type Specific Bacteriophage. Journal of the American Medical Association, 132, 134-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1946.02870380016006
[43] Verbeken, G., Pirnay, J.P., Lavigne, R., Jennes, S., De Vos, D., Casteels, M. and Huys, I. (2014) Call for a Dedicated European Legal Framework for Bacteriophage Therapy. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, 62, 117-129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00005-014-0269-y
[44] Pimay, J.P., De Vos, D., Verbeken, G., Merabishvili, M., Chanishvili, N., Vaneechoutte, M., Zizi, M., Laire, G., Lavigne, R., Huys, I., Van den Mooter, G., Buckling, A., Dabarbieux, L., Pouillot, F., Azeredo, J., Kutter, E., Dublanchet, A., Gorski, A. and Adamia, R. (2011) The Phage Therapy Paradigm: Prêt-à-Porter or Sur-mesure? Pharmaceutical Research, 28, 934-937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0313-5
[45] Parracho, H., Burrowes, B., Enright, M., McConville, V. and Harper, D. (2012) The Role of Regulated Clinical Trials in the Development of Bacteriophage Therapeutics. Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, 6, 279-286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/1747-0862.1000050
[46] Verbeken, G., Pirnay, J.P., De Vos, D., Jennes, S., Lavigne, R., Casteels, M. and Huys, I. (2012) Optimizing the European Regulatory Framework for Sustainable Bacteriophage Therapy in Human Medicine. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis, 60, 161-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00005-012-0175-0
[47] Huys, I., Pirnay, J.P., Lavigne, R., Jennes, S., De Vos, D., Casteels, M. and Verbeken, G. (2013) Paving a Regulatory Pathway for Phage Therapy. EMBO Reports, 14, 947-1022.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/embor.2013.163

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.