A Study of Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in Patients of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Impact of Diabetes on Liver Histology in Coastal Eastern India

DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2014.44040   PDF   HTML   XML   4,113 Downloads   5,972 Views   Citations

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more common in diabetic patients. There are limited studies on clinical, biochemical and histological features of NAFLD patients who are diabetic. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in a cohort of NAFLD patients and to compare anthropometry, biochemical and metabolic parameters and hepatic histology of diabetic NAFLD patients with non-diabetic NAFLD patients. Methods: 515 consecutive NAFLD patients diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound and 100 healthy controls were subjected to detailed anthropometric measurements and biochemical assays including blood sugars, LFT, lipid profile and HOMA. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to WHO criteria. Patients were categorized and compared according to the presence or absence of diabetes. Liver biopsy was performed in 240 NAFLD patients and the liver histology was also compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis was performed on SPSS 16. Results: 124 out of the 515 (24.08%) NAFLD patients were diabetics, 118 out of 515 (22.9%) were pre-diabetics, while only 3 out of 100 controls had impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetic patients were older. NAFLD patients with diabetes had significantly higher waist circumference [98.02 ± 12.01 vs 93.89 ± 8.8, p = 0.000] as compared to the NAFLD patients without diabetes. Fasting blood sugar [124 ± 46.3 vs 90.8 ± 10.2, p = 0.000], triglyceride level [218.4 ± 17.6 vs 192 ± 9, p = 0.03] and HOMA-IR [2.6 ± 0.36 vs 1.84 ± 0.2, p < 0.001] were significantly higher in NAFLD-diabetes group. Hypertension [35% vs 11.7%, p = 0.000] was commoner in diabetic NAFLD patients. Histopathology in the diabetic patients revealed steatosis alone in 34.2% cases, borderline NASH in 31.4% and definite NASH in 34.2%. Fatty change alone was noted in 16.5% cases, borderline NASH in 34.1%, while 49% had definite NASH on liver biopsy of NAFLD patients without diabetes. Fibrosis was noted in 31.4% in diabetic and 27% in non-diabetic patients. IR alone had a linear correlation with necroinflammatory activity. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes is six times more in NAFLD patients than in healthy controls. NAFLD patients with diabetes have higher metabolic risk factors such as large waistline, hypertension, high triglyceride levels and increased insulin resistance. Diabetes or pre diabetes patients per se do not have histologically severe disease, rather insulin resistance play an important role in increasing the severity of the disease.

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Singh, S. , Singh, A. , Pati, G. , Misra, B. , Misra, D. , Kar, S. , Panigrahi, M. , Meher, C. , Agrawal, O. , Rout, N. , Pattnaik, K. , Bhuyan, P. and Mohapatra, A. (2014) A Study of Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in Patients of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Impact of Diabetes on Liver Histology in Coastal Eastern India. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 4, 290-296. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2014.44040.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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