Analytical Models for Hurricanes


A two-layer theoretical model of hurricanes traveling (quasi-) steadily over open seas has been developed. The use of coherency concept allowed avoiding the common turbulent approximations, except a thin sub-layer near the air/sea interface. The model analytically describes 3D distributions of dynamic and thermodynamic variables in hurricanes and analyzes processes of evaporation and condensation. Using this modeling, the following fundamental problems were naturally resolved-change in the cyclonic/anti-cyclonic directions of hurricane rotation and the directions of radial wind in lower and upper parts of hurricane; increase in wind angular momentum in hurricane boundary layer; dramatic effect of ocean spray and its radial distribution; and a high increase in temperature at the upper region of boundary layer. Additionally, integral balances allowed expressing the governing parameters of field variables via two external parameters, the sailing wind and temperature of a warm air band, in which direction the hurricane travels. A rude model for the hurricane genesis and maturing has also been developed.

Share and Cite:

Leonov, A. (2014) Analytical Models for Hurricanes. Open Journal of Marine Science, 4, 194-213. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2014.43019.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Dunn, G.E. (1951) Tropical Cyclones. In: Compendium of Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 887-901.
[2] Anthes, R.A. (1982) Tropical Cyclones, Their Evolution, Structure and Effects. American Meteorological Society, Science Press, Ephrata, 208 p.
[3] Hsu, S.A. (1988) Coastal Meteorology. Academic Press, New York, 260 p.
[4] Cotton, W.R. and Anthes, R.A. (1989) Storms and Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press, San Diego, 883 p.
[5] Ogawa, A. (1993) Vortex Flow. CRS Press, Inc., Boca Raton.
[6] Emanuel, K.A. (2005) Divine Wind. Oxford University Press, New York, 285.
[7] Emanuel, K.A. (1983) An Air-Sea Interaction Theory for Tropical Cyclones. Part I. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 42, 1062-1071.<1062:FCITPO>2.0.CO;2
[8] Emanuel, K.A. (1995) The Behavior of Simple Hurricane Model Using a Convective Scheme Based on Subcloud Layer—Entropy Equilibrium. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 52, 3959-3968.<3960:TBOASH>2.0.CO;2
[9] Emanuel, K.A. (1999) Thermodynamic Control of Hurricane Intensity. Nature, 401, 665-669.
[10] Holland, G.I. and Merrill, R.T. (1984) On the Dynamics of Tropical Cyclone Structural Changes. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 110, 723-745.
[11] Holland, G.J. (1997) The Maximal Potential Intensity of Tropical Cyclones. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 54, 2519-2541.<2519:TMPIOT>2.0.CO;2
[12] Bister, M. and Emanuel, K.A. (1998) Dissipative Heating and Hurricane Intensity. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 65, 233-240.
[13] Montgomery, M.T., Vladimirov, V.A. and Denissenko, P.V. (2002) An Experimental Study on Hurricane Mesovortices. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 471, 1-32.
[14] Lighthill, J. (1999) Ocean Spray and the Thermodynamics of Tropical Cyclones. Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 35, 11-42.
[15] Barenblatt, G.I., Chorin, A.J. and Prostokishin, V.M. (2005) A Note Concerning the Lighthill Sandwich Model of Tropical Cyclones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 1114811150.
[16] Kagan, B.A. (1995) Ocean-Atmospheric Interaction and Climate Modeling. Cambridge University Press, New York, 377.
[17] Ooyama, K.V. (1982) Conceptual Evolution of the Theory and Modeling of the Tropical Cyclone. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 60, 369-379.
[18] Ooyama, K.V. (1983) Numerical Simulations of Life Cycle of Tropical Cyclones. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 26, 3-40.<0003:NSOTLC>2.0.CO;2
[19] Emanuel, K.A. (1989) The Finite Amplitude Nature of Tropical Cyclogenesis. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 46, 3431-3456.<3431:TFANOT>2.0.CO;2
[20] Emanuel, K.A. (1997) Some Aspects of Hurricane Inner-Core Dynamics and Energetic. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 54, 1014-1026.<1014:SAOHIC>2.0.CO;2
[21] Liu, Y., Zhang, D.-L. and Yao, M.K. (1997) A Multi-Scale Numerical Study of Hurricane Andrew, 1992. Part I: Explicit Simulation and Verification. Monthly Weather Report, 125, 3073-3093.<3073:AMNSOH>2.0.CO;2
[22] Wang, Y. and Wu, C.-C. (2004) Current Understanding of Tropical Cyclone Structure and Intensity Changes—A Review. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 87, 257-278.
[23] Chan, C.L., Duan, Y. and Shay, L.K. (2001) Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change from a Simple Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 58, 154-172.<0154:TCICFA>2.0.CO;2
[24] Leonov, A.I. (2008) Aerodynamic models for hurricanes I. Model description and horizontal motion of hurricane.
[25] Leonov, A.I. (2008) Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes II. Model of the Upper Hurricane Layer.
[26] Leonov, A.I. (2008) Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes III. Modeling Hurricane Boundary Layer.
[27] Leonov, A.I. (2008) Aerodynamic Models for Hurricanes IV. On the Hurricane Genesis and Maturing.
[28] Curry, J.A. and Webster, P.J. (1999) Thermodynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans. Academic Press, London, 467.
[29] Yarin, A.L. (1993) Free Liquid Jets and Films: Hydrodynamics and Rheology. Longman Sci. & Tech. with John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 446 p.
[30] Deppermann, C.E. (1947) Notes on the Origin and Structure of Philippine Typhoons. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 28, 399-404.
[31] Powell, M. (1982) The Transition of Hurricane Frederic Boundary Layer Wind Field from the Open Gulf of Mexico to Landfall. Monthly Weather Review, 10, 1912-1932.<1912:TTOTHF>2.0.CO;2
[32] Zhao, D. and Toba, Y. (2001) Dependence of Whitecup Coverage on Wind and Wind-Wave Properties. Journal of Oceanography, 57, 603-615.
[33] Hwang, P.A. and Sletten, M.A. (2008) Energy Dissipation and Wind-Generated Whitecup Coverage. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, Article ID: CO2012.
[34] Landau, L.D. and Lifshitz, E.M. (1986) Theoretical Physics. Vol. IV: Fluid Mechanics. Section 132 (in Russian), Nauka, Moscow, 733.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.