Dimensioning of Punctiform Metal-Composite Joints: A Section-Force Related Failure Criterion


Reliable line production processes and simulation tools play a central role for the structural integration of thermoplastic composites in advanced lightweight constructions. Provided that material-adapted joining technologies are available, they can be applied in heavy-duty multi-material designs (MMD). A load-adapted approach was implemented into the new fully automatic and fault-tolerant thermo mechanical flow drill joining (FDJ) concept. With this method it is possible to manufacture reproducible high strength FRP/metal-joints within short cycle times and without use of extra joining elements for the first time. The analysis of FDJ joints requires a simplified model of the joint to enable efficient numerical simulations. The present work introduces a strategy in modeling a finite-element based analogous-approach for FDJ-joints with glass fiber reinforced polypropylene and high-strength steel. Combined with a newly developed section-force related failure criterion, it is possible to predict the fundamental failure behavior in multi-axial stress states. The functionality of the holistic approach is illustrated by a demonstrator that represents a part of a car body-in-white structure. The comparison of simulated and experimentally determined failure loads proves the applicability for several combined load cases.

Share and Cite:

Seidlitz, H. , Ulke-Winter, L. , Gerstenberger, C. and Kroll, L. (2014) Dimensioning of Punctiform Metal-Composite Joints: A Section-Force Related Failure Criterion. Open Journal of Composite Materials, 4, 157-172. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2014.43018.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Directive 2012/27/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 on Energy Efficiency, Amending Directives 2009/125/EC and 2010/30/EU and Repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC.
[2] Goede, M., Stehlin, M., Rafflenbeul, L., Kopp, G. and Beeh, E. (2009) Super Light Car—Lightweight Construction Thanks to a Multi-Material Design and Function Integration. European Transport Research Review, 1, 5-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12544-008-0001-2
[3] Rosato, D.V. (2005) Reinforced Plastics Handbook. 3rd Edition, Elsevier Advanced Technology, Oxford.
[4] Rotheiser, J. (2009) Joining of Plastics—Handbook for Designers and Engineers. 3rd Edition, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich.
[5] Collins, M.W. and Brebbia, C.A. (2006) Design and Nature II: Comparing Design in Nature with Science and Engineering. 6th Edition, WIT Press, Southampton.
[6] Ucsnik, S., Scheererb, M., Zarembac, S. and Pahrd, D.H. (2010) Experimental Investigation of a Novel Hybrid Metal-Composite Joining Technology. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41, 369-374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.11.003
[7] Ageorges, C., Ye, L. and Hou, M. (2001) Advances in Fusion Bonding Techniques for Joining Thermoplastic Matrix Composites: A Review. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 32, 839-857. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(00)00166-4
[8] Youn, B.D., Choi, K.K., Yang, R.-J. and Gu, L. (2004) Reliability-Based Design Optimization for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Side Impact. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 26, 272-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00158-003-0345-0
[9] Ouisse, M. and Cogan, S. (2010) Robust Design of Spot Welds in Automotive Structures: A Decision-Making Methodology. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 24, 1172-1190.
[10] Palmonella, M., Friswell, M.I., Mottershead, J.E. and Lees, A.W. (2005) Finite Element Models of Spot Welds in Structural Dynamics: Review and Updating. Computers and Structures, 83, 648-661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruc.2004.11.003
[11] Deng, X., Chen, W. and Shi, G. (2000) Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Mechanical Behavior of Spot Welds. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 35, 17-39.
[12] Kroll, L., Czech, A., Ulke, L. and Müller, S. (2010) Mechanical Behaviour of Bolted Joints with Load Adapted Fibre Orientation by Variable-Axial Fibre Placement. 16th International Conference on Mechanics of Composite Materials, Riga, 24-28 May 2010, 112-117.
[13] Mattheck, C. (1991) Trees: The Mechanical Design. 1st Edition, Springer, Berlin.
[14] Kroll, L. (2009) Textilverstarkte Kunststoffbauteile in Funktionsintegrierender Leichtbauweise. In: Wintermantel, E. and Ha, S.-W., Medizintechnik—Life Science Engineering: Interdisziplinaritat, Biokompatibilitat, Technologien, Implantate, Diagnostik, Werkstoffe, Business, Springer, Berlin, 343-356.
[15] Temmen, H., Degenhardt, R. and Raible, T. (2006) Tailored Fibre Placement Optimization Tool. ICAS-Secretariat— 25th International Congress of Aeronautical Sciences, Hamburg, 3-8 September 2006, 2462-2471.
[16] Ghiasi, H., Fayazbakhsh, K., Pasini, D. and Lessard, L. (2010) Optimum Stacking Sequence Design of Composite Materials Part II: Variable Stiffness Design. Composite Structures, 93, 1-13.
[17] Reuschel, D. and Mattheck, C. (1999) Optimization of Fiber Arrangement with CAIO (Computer Aided Internal Optimization) and Application to Tensile Samples. The 6th International Conference on Computer Aided Optimum Design of Structures OPTI 99, Orlando, 16-18 March 1999, 247-255.
[18] Seidlitz, H., Ulke, L. and Kroll, L. (2010) Methods and Tools for Producing a Mixed Module, Verfahren und Werkzeuge zum Herstellen einer Mischbaugruppe. German Patent No. DE 102009013265B4.
[19] Seidlitz, H., Kroll, L. and Ulke-Winter, L. (2011) Heavy-Duty Lightweight Structures: Force Flux-Maintaining Spot Connections. Kunststoffe International, 3, 25-28.
[20] Seidlitz, H., Kroll, L. and Ulke-Winter, L. (2009) Load Adjusted Joining Technology for Composite-Metal Hybrids. Methods of Artificial Intelligence, Gliwice, 18-19 November 2009, 51-52.
[21] Simulia (2007) Abaqus—Example Problems Manual Volume II: Other Applications and Analyses. 1st Edition, Dassault Systèmes, Vélizy-Villacoublay.
[22] Fang, J., Hoff, C., Holman, B., Mueller, F. and Wallerstein, D. (2000) Weld Modeling with MSC.Nastran. 2nd MSC Worldwide Automotive User Conference, Dearborn, 9-11 October 2000, 1-14.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.