Experimental Study on Flow Characteristic in Sloping Weir


Drop structure is a key hydraulic structure used in river improvement projects for flood control purposes. However, as demand for riparian construction techniques with environmental considerations is increasing both domestically and internationally, discontinuation of aquatic organisms as a result of high head is raised as a serious issue associated with the existing drop structures. Accordingly, it has become necessary to install a drop structure with a mild slope rather than the existing drop structures with high head, so that the structure can function as a migration channel for fish, which is severed by the existing drop structures, and also improve surrounding landscapes. In this study, which was initiated based on the necessity as such, a drop structure of mild slope was defined as sloping weir and flow characteristics under different conditions were analyzed through a hydraulic experiment. Focusing on efficiency according to energy dissipation that takes place according to different gradients of sloping weir, particle sizes of riverbed materials and the effect of hydraulic jump occurring at the downstream of a structure, this study aimed at identifying flow characteristics according to the conditions of sloping weirs. Thehydraulic experimentwas carried out on a variable-slope channel measuring 0.6 m in width and 20.0 m in length. As for riverbed materials, materials with two particle sizes (16 mm and 25 mm) were selected. For the experiment, models with different slope ratios to the structure, such as 1V:2H, 1V:3H and 1V:4H, were created. For flow conditions and hydraulic jump locations, an amount of water satisfying four water level conditions by stage was flown according to water level at the inlet area. Then, eight points were selected from inlet area, drop area, jet flow area and downstream area by controlling water level at the downstream area and adjusting the location of hydraulic jump occurrence. Water level (y), flow velocity (V), length of hydraulic jump (Lr) and distance of hydraulic jump occurrence (Lj) were measured at the eight points.

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Joongu Kang, J. , Kim, S. , Yeo, H. and Lee, N. (2014) Experimental Study on Flow Characteristic in Sloping Weir. Engineering, 6, 329-337. doi: 10.4236/eng.2014.67036.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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