Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores and the Framing of Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:310KB) PP. 411-420
DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.47036    3,305 Downloads   4,671 Views  
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

This article reviews: 1) The role of natural and human-induced controls in influencing large herbivore populations; 2) how human controls (i.e., policy instruments, incentives and provisions) influence human activities and wildlife conservation; and 3) media framing of wildlife conservation using Zimbabwe as a case study, in particular Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas. The review shows that droughts are important in influencing large herbivore populations in semi-arid ecosystems; political instability and economic collapse does not necessarily lead to increased illegal hunting in situations where policy instruments, such as laws, are enforced. A higher perceived effectiveness of Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources was partly associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts and there was a spill-over effect of frames from the political domain into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe’s land reforms in 2000. It is concluded that natural bottom-up processes (e.g., droughts) influence large herbivore population dynamics whereas policy instruments, incentives, provisions and societal frames mainly have a top-down effect on wild large herbivore populations in savanna ecosystems.

Cite this paper

Gandiwa, E. (2014) Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores and the Framing of Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 411-420. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.47036.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] Marzano, M., Carss, D.N. and Bell, S. (2006) Working to Make Interdisciplinarity Work: Investing in Communication and Interpersonal Relationships. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 57, 185-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2006.00046.x
[2] Giller, K.E., Leeuwis, C., Andersson, J.A., Andriesse, W., Brouwer, A., Frost, P., Hebinck, P., Heitk?nig, I., Van Ittersum, M.K., Koning, N., Ruben, R., Slingerland, M., Udo, H., Veldkamp, T., van de Vijver, C., van Wijk, M.T. and Windmeijer, P. (2008) Competing Claims on Natural Resources: What Role for Science. Ecology and Society, 13, 34. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art34/
[3] Gandiwa, E. (2013) The Numbers Game in Wildlife Conservation: Changeability and Framing of Large Mammal Numbers in Zimbabwe. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen.
[4] Gandiwa, E. (2013) Top-Down and Bottom-Up Control of Large Herbivore Populations: A Review of Natural and Human-Induced Influences. Tropical Conservation Science, 6, 493-505.
[5] Grange, S. and Duncan, P. (2006) Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes in African Ungulate Communities: Resources and Predation Acting on the Relative Abundance of Zebra and Grazing Bovids. Ecography, 29, 899-907. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04684.x
[6] Gandiwa, E., Sprangers, S., van Bommel, S., Heitk?nig, I.M.A., Leeuwis, C. and Prins, H.H.T. (2014) Spill-Over Effect in Media Framing: Representations of Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwean and International Media, 1989-2010. Journal for Nature Conservation, in Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2014.03.009
[7] Hairston, N.G., Smith, F.E. and Slobodkin, L.B. (1960) Community Structure, Population Control, and Competition. American Naturalist, 94, 421-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/282146
[8] Slobodkin, L.B. (1960) Ecological Energy Relationships at the Population Level. American Naturalist, 94, 213-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/282124
[9] Martin, R.B. (1986) Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE). CAMPFIRE Working Document No. 1/86. Branch of Terrestrial Ecology, Department of National Parks and Wild Life Management, Harare.
[10] Child, G. and Chitsike, L. (2000) “Ownership” of Wildlife. In: Prins, H.H.T., Grootenhuis, J.G. and Dolan, T.T., Eds., Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, 247-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4012-6_12
[11] Coe, M.J., Cumming, D.H. and Phillipson, J. (1976) Biomass and Production of Large African Herbivores in Relation to Rainfall and Primary Production. Oecologia, 22, 341-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00345312
[12] East, R. (1984) Rainfall, Soil Nutrient Status and Biomass of Large African Savanna Mammals. African Journal of Ecology, 22, 245-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1984.tb00700.x
[13] Prins, H.H.T. and Loth, P.E. (1988) Rainfall Patterns as Background to Plant Phenology in Northern Tanzania. Journal of Biogeography, 15, 451-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2845275
[14] Drent, R.H. and Prins, H.H.T. (1987) The Herbivore as Prisoner of Its Food Supply. In: Andel, J.V., Bakker, J. and Snaydon, R.W., Eds., Disturbance in Grasslands: Species and Population Responses, Dr. W. Junk Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 131-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4055-0_9
[15] Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Gouveia, C., Camarero, J.J., Beguería, S., Trigo, R., López-Moreno, J.I., Azorín-Molina, C., Pasho, E., Lorenzo-Lacruz, J. and Revuelto, J. (2013) Response of Vegetation to Drought Time-Scales across Global Land Biomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 52-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1207068110
[16] Knight, M.H. (1995) Drought-Related Mortality of Wildlife in the Southern Kalahari and the Role of Man. African Journal of Ecology, 33, 377-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1995.tb01047.x
[17] Foley, C., Pettorelli, N. and Foley, L. (2008) Severe Drought and Calf Survival in Elephants. Biology Letters, 4, 541544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2008.0370
[18] Duncan, C., Chauvenet, A.L.M., McRae, L.M. and Pettorelli, N. (2012) Predicting the Future Impact of Droughts on Ungulate Populations in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments. PloS ONE, 7, Article ID: e51490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051490
[19] Seydack, A.H., Grant, C.C., Smit, I.P., Vermeulen, W.J., Baard, J. and Zambatis, N. (2012) Large Herbivore Population Performance and Climate in a South African Semi-Arid Savanna. Koedoe, 54, Article ID: 1047. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v54i1.1047
[20] Owen-Smith, N. and Ogutu, J. (2003) Rainfall Influences on Ungulate Population Dynamics in the Kruger National Park. In: du Toit, J.T., Rogers, K.H. and Biggs, H.C., Eds., The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Savanna Heterogeneity, Island Press, Washington DC, 310-331.
[21] Barnes, R.F.W. and Lahm, S.A. (1997) An Ecological Perspective on Human Densities in the Central African Forest. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 245-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2404862
[22] Du Toit, J.T. and Cumming, D.H.M. (1999) Functional Significance of Ungulate Diversity in African Savannas and the Ecological Implications of the Spread of Pastoralism. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 1643-1661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008959721342
[23] Sala, O.E., Austin, A.T. and Vivanco, L. (2001) Temperate Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems. In: Levin, S.A., Ed., Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Academic Press, San Diego, 627-635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-226865-2/00268-6
[24] Brashares, J.S., Arcese, P., Sam, M.K., Coppolillo, P.B., Sinclair, A.R.E. and Balmford, A. (2004) Bushmeat Hunting, Wildlife Declines, and Fish Supply in West Africa. Science, 306, 1180-1183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1102425
[25] Hayward, M.W. (2009) Bushmeat Hunting in Dwesa and Cwebe Nature Reserves, Eastern Cape, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 39, 70-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.3957/056.039.0108
[26] Nielsen, M. (2011) Improving the Conservation Status of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania? The Effect of Joint Forest Management on Bushmeat Hunting in the Kilombero Nature Reserve. Conservation and Society, 9, 106-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4923.83721
[27] Gandiwa, E., Zisadza-Gandiwa, P., Mango, L. and Jakarasi, J. (2014) Law Enforcement Staff Perceptions of Illegal Hunting and Wildlife Conservation in Gonarezhou National Park, Southeastern Zimbabwe. Tropical Ecology, 55, 119-127.
[28] Lindsey, P.A., Balme, G., Becker, M., Begg, C., Bento, C., Bocchino, C., Dickman, A., Diggle, R.W., Eves, H., Henschel, P., Lewis, D., Marnewick, K., Mattheus, J., Weldon McNutt, J., McRobb, R., Midlane, N., Milanzi, J., Morley, R., Murphree, M., Opyene, V., Phadima, J., Purchase, G., Rentsch, D., Roche, C., Shaw, J., Westhuizen, H.V.D., Vliet, N.V. and Zisadza-Gandiwa, P. (2013) The Bushmeat Trade in African Savannas: Impacts, Drivers, and Possible Solutions. Biological Conservation, 160, 80-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.12.020
[29] Gandiwa, E., Heitk?nig, I.M.A., Lokhorst, A.M., Prins, H.H.T. and Leeuwis, C. (2013) Illegal Hunting and Law Enforcement during a Period of Economic Decline in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of Northern Gonarezhou National Park and Adjacent Areas. Journal for Nature Conservation, 21, 133-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2012.11.009
[30] Holmern, T., Mkama, S., Muya, J. and R?skaft, E. (2006) Intraspecific Prey Choice of Bushmeat Hunters Outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania: A Preliminary Analysis. African Zoology, 41, 81-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.3377/1562-7020(2006)41[81:IPCOBH]2.0.CO;2
[31] Kümpel, N.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G. and Rowcliffe, J.M. (2010) Incentives for Hunting: The Role of Bushmeat in the Household Economy in Rural Equatorial Guinea. Human Ecology, 38, 251-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-010-9316-4
[32] Macdonald, D.W., Johnson, P.J., Albrechtsen, L., Seymour, S., Dupain, J., Hall, A. and Fa, J.E. (2012) Bushmeat Trade in the Cross-Sanaga Rivers Region: Evidence for the Importance of Protected Areas. Biological Conservation, 147, 107-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.12.018
[33] Mombeshora, S. and Le Bel, S. (2009) Parks-People Conflicts: The Case of Gonarezhou National Park and the Chitsa Community in South-East Zimbabwe. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18, 2601-2623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-009-9676-5
[34] Gandiwa, P., Matsvayi, M., Ngwenya, M.M. and Gandiwa, E. (2011) Assessment of Livestock and Human Settlement Encroachment into Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13, 19-33.
[35] Tumusiime, D.M., Eilu, G., Tweheyo, M. and Babweteera, F. (2010) Wildlife Snaring in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15, 129-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10871200903493899
[36] Wato, Y.A., Wahungu, G.M. and Okello, M.M. (2006) Correlates of Wildlife Snaring Patterns in Tsavo West National Park, Kenya. Biological Conservation, 132, 500-509.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.05.010
[37] Becker, M., McRobb, R., Watson, F., Droge, E., Kanyembo, B., Murdoch, J. and Kakumbi, C. (2013) Evaluating WireSnare Poaching Trends and the Impacts of By-Catch on Elephants and Large Carnivores. Biological Conservation, 158, 26-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.08.017
[38] Fischer, F. (2008) The Importance of Law Enforcement for Protected Areas: Don’t Step Back! Be Honest—Protect! GAIA—Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 17, 101-103.
[39] Jachmann, H. and Billiouw, M. (1997) Elephant Poaching and Law Enforcement in the Central Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 233-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2404861
[40] Holmern, T., Muya, J. and R?skaft, E. (2007) Local Law Enforcement and Illegal Bushmeat Hunting outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation, 34, 55-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0376892907003712
[41] Gandiwa, E., Heitk?nig, I.M.A., Gandiwa, P., Matsvayi, W., Van Der Westhuizen, H. and Ngwenya, M.M. (2013) Large Herbivore Dynamics in Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Tropical Ecology, 54, 345-354.
[42] Dunham, K.M., van der Westhuizen, E., van der Westhuizen, H.F. and Gandiwa, E. (2010) Aerial Survey of Elephants and Other Large Herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park (Zimbabwe), Zinave National Park (Mozambique) and Surrounds: 2009. Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, Harare.
[43] Gandiwa, E., Heitk?nig, I.M.A., Lokhorst, A.M., Prins, H.H.T. and Leeuwis, C. (2013) CAMPFIRE and HumanWildlife Conflicts in Communities Adjacent to the Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Ecology and Society, 18, 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-05817-180407
[44] Michalski, F., Boulhosa, R.L.P., Faria, A. and Peres, C.A. (2006) Human-Wildlife Conflicts in a Fragmented Amazonian Forest Landscape: Determinants of Large Felid Depredation on Livestock. Animal Conservation, 9, 179-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00025.x
[45] Anthony, B.P., Scott, P. and Antypas, A. (2010) Sitting on the Fence? Policies and Practices in Managing HumanWildlife Conflict in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Conservation and Society, 8, 225-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-4923.73812
[46] Gore, M.L. and Kahler, J.S. (2012) Gendered Risk Perceptions Associated with Human-Wildlife Conflict: Implications for Participatory Conservation. PloS ONE, 7, Article ID: e32901.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032901
[47] Child, B. (2000) Making Wildlife Pay: Converting Wildlife’s Comparative Advantage into Real Incentives for Having Wildlife in African Savannas, Case Studies from Zimbabwe and Zambia. In: Prins, H.H.T., Grootenhuis, J.G. and Dolan, T.T., Eds., Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 335-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4012-6_17
[48] Prins, H.H.T., Grootenhuis, J.G. and Dolan, T.T. (2000) Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4012-6
[49] Heitknig, I.M.A. and Prins, H.H.T. (2009) Land Use in Zimbabwe and Neighbouring Southern African Countries. In: Boersema, J.J. and Reijnders, L., Eds., Principles of Environmental Sciences, SpringerNetherlands, Berlin, 445-457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9158-2_22
[50] Mutandwa, E. and Gadzirayi, C.T. (2007) Impact of Community-Based Approaches to Wildlife Management: Case Study of the CAMPFIRE Programme in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 14, 336-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13504500709469734
[51] Balint, P. and Mashinya, J. (2006) The Decline of a Model Community-Based Conservation Project: Governance, Capacity, and Devolution in Mahenye, Zimbabwe. Geoforum, 37, 805-815. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2005.01.011
[52] Balint, P.J. and Mashinya, J. (2008) CAMPFIRE during Zimbabwe’s National Crisis: Local Impacts and Broader Implications for Community-Based Wildlife Management. Society & Natural Resources, 21, 783-796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941920701681961
[53] Gandiwa, E. (2011) Preliminary Assessment of Illegal Hunting by Communities Adjacent to the Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Tropical Conservation Science, 4, 445-467.
[54] Kalaivanan, N., Venkataramanan, R., Sreekumar, C., Saravanan, A. and Srivastava, R.K. (2011) Secondary Phorate Poisoning of Large Carnivores in India. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 57, 191-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10344-010-0433-6
[55] Mateo-Tomás, P., Olea, P.P., Sánchez-Barbudo, I.S. and Mateo, R. (2012) Alleviating Human-Wildlife Conflicts: Identifying the Causes and Mapping the Risk of Illegal Poisoning of Wild Fauna. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 376385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02119.x
[56] Gillingham, S. and Lee, P.C. (1999) The Impact of Wildlife-Related Benefits on the Conservation Attitudes of Local People around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation, 26, 218-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0376892999000302
[57] Scanlon, L.J. and Kull, C.A. (2009) Untangling the Links between Wildlife Benefits and Community-Based Conservation at Torra Conservancy, Namibia. Development Southern Africa, 26, 75-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03768350802640107
[58] Karanth, K.K. and Nepal, S.K. (2012) Local Residents Perception of Benefits and Losses from Protected Areas in India and Nepal. Environmental Management, 49, 372-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9778-1
[59] Valeix, M., Fritz, H., Chamaillé-Jammes, S., Bourgarel, M. and Murindagomo, F. (2008) Fluctuations in Abundance of Large Herbivore Populations: Insights into the Influence of Dry Season Rainfall and Elephant Numbers from LongTerm Data. Animal Conservation, 11, 391-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00194.x
[60] Lindsey, P.A., Roman?ch, S.S., Matema, S., Matema, C., Mupamhadzi, I. and Muvengwi, J. (2011) Dynamics and Underlying Causes of Illegal Bushmeat Trade in Zimbabwe. Oryx, 45, 84-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310001274
[61] Chaumba, J., Scoones, I. and Wolmer, W. (2003) From Jambanja to Planning: The Reassertion of Technocracy in Land Reform in Southeastern Zimbabwe? The Journal of Modern African Studies, 41, 533-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022278X03004397
[62] Wolmer, W., Chaumba, J. and Scoones, I. (2004) Wildlife Management and Land Reform in Southeastern Zimbabwe: A Compatible Pairing or a Contradiction in Terms? Geoforum, 35, 87-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0016-7185(03)00031-9
[63] Entman, R.M. (2004) Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and US Foreign Policy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
[64] Ferrier, E.A. and Larson, B.M.H. (2012) Biodiversity and Conservation Framing in Canada: A Case Study of the Oak Ridges Moraine. Zeitschrift für Kanada-Studien, 32, 107-125.
[65] Ogutu, J.O., Reid, R.S., Piepho, H.P., Hobbs, N.T., Rainy, M.E., Kruska, R.L., Worden, J.S. and Nyabenge, M. (2014) Large Herbivore Responses to Surface Water and Land Use in an East African Savanna: Implications for Conservation and Human-Wildlife Conflicts. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23, 573-596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-013-0617-y
[66] van Aarde, R.J. and Jackson, T.P. (2007) Megaparks for Metapopulations: Addressing the Causes of Locally High Elephant Numbers in Southern Africa. Biological Conservation, 134, 289-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.027
[67] Rihoy, E. and Mugaranyanga, B. (2007) Devolution and Democratisation of Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa: A Comparative Analysis of CBNRM Policy Processes in Botswana and Zimbabwe. Commons Southern Africa, Paper No. 18, 62 pp., CASS/PLAAS Occasional Paper Series. http://www.uwc.ac.za/plaas

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.