Electrochemical Properties of Modified Carbon Paste with Copper Hexacyanoferrate Film on Nitric Oxide Reduction


Copper hexacyanoferate film was prepared electrochemically on carbon paste electrode and was tested for detection of nitric (II) oxide in comparison with unmodified electrodes. Modified electrode could be operated under physiological conditions (pH 7.5, 0.1 M phosphate buffer), with an operating potential of ﹣400 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) in hydrodynamic amperometry. The amperometric response of the electrode showed good linearity up to 250 μM with a detection limit (3σ) of 8.32 μM. The relative standard deviation for the repeatability of measurements for 100 μM nitric (II) oxide was 4.1% (n = 10 measurements) and the corresponding reproducibility was 14% (n = 5 electrodes). The effect of investigated interferences (nitrite and nitrate ion) was not fatal and could be eliminated using the standard addition method. The modified electrode also seems promising to detect NO in car exhaust fumes.

Share and Cite:

Berisha, L. , Maloku, A. , Andoni, E. and Arbneshi, T. (2014) Electrochemical Properties of Modified Carbon Paste with Copper Hexacyanoferrate Film on Nitric Oxide Reduction. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 308-315. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.55038.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Svancara, I., Kalcher, K., Walcarius, A. and Vytras, K. (2012). Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste Electrodes. CRC Press, 163.
[2] Beyene, N.W., Kotzian, P., Schachl, K., Alemuc, H., Turkušic, E., Copra, A., Moderegger, H., Švancara, I., Vytras K. and Kalcher, K. (2004) (Bio)Sensors Based on Manganese Dioxide-Modified Carbon Substrates: Retrospections. Further Improvements and Applications. Talanta, 64, 1151-1159.
[3] Bedioui, F. and Griveau, S. (2013) Electrochemical Detection of Nitric Oxide: Assessment of Twenty Years of Strategies. Electroanalysis, 25, 587-600.
[4] Hetrick, E.M. and Schoenfisch, M.H. (2009) Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide. Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, 2, 409-433.
[5] Saldanha, C., Almeida, J.P.L. and Silva-Herdade, A.S. (2014) Application of a Nitric Oxide Sensor in Biomedicine. Biosensors, 4, 1-17.
[6] Trevin, S., Bedioui, F. and Devynck, J. (1996) Electrochemical and Spectrophotometric Study of the Behavior of Electropolymerized Nickel Porphyrin Films in the Determination of Nitric Oxide in Solucion. Talanta, 43, 303-311.
[7] Allen, B.W., Piantadosi, C.A. and Coury, L.A. (2000) Electrode Materials for Nitric Oxide Detection. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry, 4, 75-84.
[8] Berisha, L.S., Kalcher, K., Maloku, A., Andoni, E. and Arbneshi, T. (2013) Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Nitric Oxide at Carbon Paste Electrode Modified with Chromium (III) Oxide. Journal of Advances in Chemistry, 5, 792-799.
[9] Pubudu, W. and Peiris, M. (2009) New Generation of Electrochemical Sensors for Nitric Oxide: Ruthenium/Carbon-Based Nanostructures and Colloids as Electrocatalytic Platforms. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cleveland State University.
[10] Krylov, A.V. and Lisdat, F. (2007) Nickel Hexacyanoferrate-Based Sensor Electrode for the Detection of Nitric Oxide at Low Potentials. Electroanalysis, 19, 23-29.
[11] Casero, E., Pariente, F. and Lorenzo, E. (2003) Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Nitric Oxide at indium hexacyanoferrate Film-Modified Electrodes. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 375, 294-299.
[12] Friedemann, M.N., Robinson, S.W. and Gerhardt, G.A. (1996) o-Phenylenediamine-Modified Carbon Fiber Electrodes for the Detection of Nitric Oxide. Analytical Chemistry, 68, 2621-2628.
[13] Chen, X., XIe, P., Tian, Q. and Hu, S. (2006) Amperometric Nitric Oxide Sensor Based on Poly (Thionine)/Nafion-Mo- dified Electrode and Its Application in Monitorin Nitric Oxide Release from Rat Kidney. Analytical Letters, 39, 1321-1332.
[14] Wu, F.H., Zhao, G.C. and Wei, X.W. (2002) Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Nitric Oxide at Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode. Electrochemistry Communications, 4, 690-694.
[15] Gan, X., Liu, T., Hu, X. and Li, G. (2004) An Electrochemical Biosensor for Nitric Oxide Based on Silver Nanoparticles and Hemoglobin. Analytical Sciences, 20, 1271-1275.
[16] Garjonyte, R. and Malinauskas, A. (1999) Operational Stability of Amperometric Hydrogen Peroxide Sensors, Based on Ferrous and Cooper Hexacyanoferrates. Sensors and Actuators B, 56, 92-97.
[17] Pauliukaite, R., Ghica, M.E. and Brett, C.M.A. (2005) A New, Improved Sensor for Ascorbate Determination at Copper Hexacyanoferrate Modified Carbon Film Electrodes. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 381, 972-978.
[18] Ojani, R., Raoof, J.B. and Norouzi, B. (2008) Cu(II) Hexacyanoferrate (III) Modified Carbon Paste Electrode; Application for Electrocatalytic Detection of Nitrite. Electroanalysis, 20, 1996-2002.
[19] Pauliukaite, R., Florescu, M. and Brett, C.M.A. (2005) Characterization of Cobalt- and Copper Hexacyanoferrate-Modified Carbon Film Electrodes for Redox-Mediated Biosensors. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 9, 354-362.
[20] Wang, J., Zhang, X. and Prakash, M. (1999) Glucose Microsensors Based on Carbon Paste Enzyme Electrodes Modified with Cupric Hexacyanoferrate. Analytica Chimica Acta, 395, 11-16.
[21] Nims, R.W., Darbyshire, J.F., Saavedra, J.E., Christodoulou, D., Hanbauer, I., Cox, G.W., Grisham, M.B., Laval, J., Cook, J.A., Krishna, M.C. and Wink, D.A. (1995) Colorimetric Methods for the Determination of Nitric Oxide Concentration in Neutral Aqueous Solutions. Methods (A Companion to Methods Enzymology), 7, 48-54.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.