Seasonal and Temporal Variations in Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor and Outdoor Air in Al-Jahra City, Kuwait

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.54034   PDF   HTML     4,162 Downloads   5,804 Views   Citations


Indoor and outdoor air samples were simultaneously collected from the largest office building in Jahra City during 57 sampling events between August 2010 and November 2011. The collected samples were analyzed for 78 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using CO2 cryogenic preconcentration and GC/MS analysis. Of the 48 VOCs detected, the toluene concentration exceeded the recommended air quality guidelines in 2% of the outdoor samples, and the benzene concentration exceeded these guidelines in 17.5% and 19.5% of the indoor and outdoor samples, respectively. Industrial and vehicle emissions were negligible. Emissions from oil fields, various crude oil production and flaring activities in the north were major sources of VOCs in the ambient air. The VOC profiles; seasonal, monthly, and weekday/weekend variations; and their effects on ozone formation potentials are discussed. The results indicate that the most abundant class of chemical compounds was oxygenated compounds, of which acetone, acetaldehyde, propanal, methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol were the most dominant species. Propene and toluene were the most abundant species of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively.

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Al-Khulaifi, N. , Al-Mudhaf, H. , Alenezi, R. , Abu-Shady, A. and Selim, M. (2014) Seasonal and Temporal Variations in Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor and Outdoor Air in Al-Jahra City, Kuwait. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 310-326. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.54034.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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