Effect of Aqueous Extract of Phoenix dactylifera Pollen on Dopamine System of Nucleus Accumbens in Male Rats

DOI: 10.4236/nm.2014.51008   PDF   HTML     5,057 Downloads   6,863 Views   Citations


Background: Dopamine has been known to facilitate male sexual function. Methods: The effect of aqueous extract (140 mg/kg) of Phoenix dactylifera date palm pollen on sexual behavior and determining of dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens was studied in male rats using in vivo microdialysis. Results: Releasing of dopamine increased significantly in the nucleus accumbens when a receptive female was introduced behind a screen (p < 0.001). During copulation, dopamine increased markedly in control and treated rats. Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm Pollen enhanced the orientation of males towards females by increasing mounting and ano-genital investigatory behavior. Improving of sexual behavior and dopamine release was higher in treated rats in comparison with control (p < 0.001). Conclusion: These results indicate a neurochemical basis for interaction between dopaminergic agents and male sexual behavior. Therefore, Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm Pollen seems to act as a dopamine agonist and to cure male infertility. It can be used as an aphrodisiac that leads to further increases in dopamine release.

Share and Cite:

Abedi, A. , Karimian, S. , Parviz, M. , Mohammadi, P. and Roudsari, H. (2014) Effect of Aqueous Extract of Phoenix dactylifera Pollen on Dopamine System of Nucleus Accumbens in Male Rats. Neuroscience and Medicine, 5, 49-59. doi: 10.4236/nm.2014.51008.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D. (1994) The Physiology of Male Sexual Behavior. In: Knobil, E. and Neill, J., Eds., Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edition, Raven Press, New York, 3-50, 70-100.
[2] Lal, S., Laryea, E. and Thavundayil, J.X. (1987) Apomorphine Induced Penile Tumescence in Impotent Patients: Preliminary Findings. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 11, 235-242.
[3] Giuliano, F. and Allard, J. (2001) Dopamine and Sexual Function. International Journal of Impotence Research, 13, S18-S28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3900719
[4] Elaine, M.H., John, W.M. and Satoru, S. (2004) Dopamine and Serotonin: Influences on Sexual Behavior. Physiology and Behavior, 83, 291-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.08.018
[5] Barbeau, A. (1969) L-DOPA Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease: A Critical Review of Nine Years’ Experience. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 101, 791-800.
[6] Dula, E., Keating, W., Siami, P.F., Edmonds, A, O’Neil, J. and Buttler, S. (2000) Efficacy and Safety of Fixed-Dose and Dose Optimization Regimens of Sublingual Apomorphine versus Placebo in Men with Erectile Dysfunction. The Apomorphine Study Group. Urology, 56, 130-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(00)00575-6
[7] Giuliano, F., Allard, J. and Apomorphine, S.L. (2002) (Uprima): Preclinical and Clinical Experiences Learned the First Central Nervous System-Acting ED Drug. International Journal of Impotence Research, 14, S53-S56.
[8] Hull, E.M. and Dominguez, J.M. (2006) Getting His Act Together: Roles of Glutamate, Nitric Oxide, and Dopamine in the Medial Preoptic Area. Brain Research, 1126, 66-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.08.031
[9] Olivier, J.D.A., de Jong, T.R. and Dederen, P.J. (2007) Effects of Acute and Chronic Apomorphine on Sex Behavior and Copulation-Induced Neural Activation in the Male Rat. European Journal of Physiology, 576, 61-76.
[10] Tagliamonte, A., Fratta, W., Del Fiacco, M. and Gessa, G.L. (1974) Possible Stimulatory Role of Brain Dopamine in the Copulatory Behavior of Male Rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 2, 257-260.
[11] Rodriguez-Manzo, G. (1999) Yohimbine Interacts with the Dopaminergic System to Reverse Sexual Satiation: Further Evidence for a Role of Sexual Motivation in Sexual Exhaustion. European Journal of Pharmacology, 372, 1-8.
[12] Scaletta, L.L. and Hull, E.M. (1990) Systemic or Intracranial Apomorphine Increases Copulation in Long-Term Castrated Male Rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 37, 471-475.
[13] Ahlenius, S. and Larsson, K. (1990) Effects of Selective D1 and D2 Antagonists on Male Rat Sexual Behavior. Experientia, 46, 1026-1028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01940663
[14] Pfaus, J.G. and Phillips, A.G. (1989) Differential Effects of Dopamine Receptor Antagonists on the Sexual Behavior of Male Rats. Psychopharmacology, 98, 363-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00451688
[15] Lopez, H.H. and Ettenberg, A. (2002) Exposure to Female Rats Produces Differences in c-Fos Induction between Sexually Naive and Experienced Male Rats. Brain Research, 947, 57-66.
[16] Lopez, H.H. and Ettenberg, A. (2002) Sexually Conditioned Incentives: Attenuation of Motivational Impact during Dopamine Receptor Antagonism. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 72, 65-72.
[17] Baldwin, D. and Mayers, A. (2003) Sexual Side-Effects of Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Drugs. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 9, 202-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/apt.9.3.202
[18] Missale, C., Nash, S.R., Robinson, S.W., Jaber, M. and Caron, M.G. (1998) Dopamine Receptors: From Structure to Function. Physiological Reviews, 78, 189-225.
[19] Hull, E.M., Bazzett, T.J., Warner, R.K., Eaton, R.C. and Thompson, J.T. (1990) Dopamine Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area Modulate Male Sexual Behavior in Rats. Brain Research, 512, 1-6.
[20] Hull, E.M., Weber, M.S., Eaton, R.C., Dua, R., Markowski, V.P. and Lumley, L. (1991) Dopamine Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area Affect Motor, but Not Motivational or Reflexive, Components of Copulation in Male Rats. Brain Research, 55, 72-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(91)90173-S
[21] Clement, P., Bernabe, J., Denys, P., Alexandre, L. and Giuliano, F. (2007) Ejaculation Induced by i.c.v. Injection of the Preferential Dopamine D(3) Receptor Agonist 7-Hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin in Anesthetized Rats. Neuroscience, 145, 605-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.12.003
[22] Kitrey, N.D., Clement, P., Bernabe, J., Alexandre, L. and Giuliano, F. (2007) Microinjection of the Preferential Dopamine Receptor D(3) Agonist 7-Hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propylaminotetralin Hydrobromide into the Hypothalamic Medial Preoptic Area Induced Ejaculation in Anesthetized Rats. Neuroscience, 149, 636-641.
[23] Woolley, S.C., Sakata, J.T. and Crews, D. (2004) Evolutionary Insights into the Regulation of Courtship Behavior in Male Amphibians and Reptiles. Physiology and Behavior, 83, 347-360.
[24] Schroeder, M.B. and Riters, L.V. (2006) Pharmacological Manipulations of Dopamine and Opioids Have Differential Effects on Sexually Motivated Song in Male European Starlings. Physiology and Behavior, 88, 575-584.
[25] Szczypka, M.S., Zhou, Q.Y. and Palmiter, R.D. (1998) Dopamine Stimulated Sexual Behavior in Testosterone Dependent Mice. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 1229-1235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.112.5.1229
[26] Hull, E.M. and Dominguez, J.M. (2007) Sexual Behavior in Male Rodents. Hormones and Behavior, 52, 45-55.
[27] Zarrindast, M.R., Mamanpush, S.M. and Rashidy-Pour, A. (1994) Morphine Inhibits Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Induced Ejaculation in Rats. General Pharmacology, 25, 803-808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(94)90263-1
[28] Hassan, W.A., El-kashlan, A.M. and Ehssan, N.A. (2012) Egyptian Date Palm Pollen Ameliorates Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Cadmium Chloride in Adult Male Rats. Journal of American Science, 8, 959-969.
[29] Miller, C.J., Dunn, E.V. and Hashim, I.B. (2003) The Glycaemic Index of Dates and Date/Yoghurt Mixed Meals. Are Dates the Candy that Grows on Trees? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 427-430.
[30] Abbas, A.F. and Ateya, A.M. (2010) Estradiol, Esteriol, Estrone and Novel Flavonids from Date Palm Pollen. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5, 606-614.
[31] Putnam, S.K., Du, J., Sato, S. and Hull, E.M. (2001) Testosterone Restoration of Copulatory Behavior Correlates with Medial Preoptic Dopamine Release in Castrated Male Rats. Hormones and Behavior, 39, 216-224.
[32] Amine, E.S., Awa, O. and El-samad, M.A. (1969) Pharmacological Studies on Pollen Grains of Dates (Phoenix dactylifera). Phytochemistry, 8, 295-298.
[33] Bahmanpour, S., Talaei, T., Vojdani, Z., Panjehshahin, M.R., Poostapasand, A., Zareei, S. and Ghaeminia, M. (2006) Effect of Phoenix dactylifera Pollen on Sperm Parameters and Reproductive System of Adult Male Rats. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 31, 208-212.
[34] Abedi, A., Parviz, M., Karimian, S.M. and Sadeghipour Rodsari, H.R. (2012) The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Phoenix dactylifera Pollen Grain on Sexual Behavior of Male Rats. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology Advances, 2, 235-242.
[35] Paxinos, G. and Watson, C. (1997) The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. Academic Press, London.
[36] Agmo, A. (1997) Male Rat Sexual Behavior. Brain Research Protocols, 1, 203-209.
[37] Yakuba, M.T., Akanji, M.A., Oladiji, A.T. and Adesokan, A.A. (2008) Androgenic Potentials of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminate (G. Don) Bullock ex Hoyl. Stem in Male Wistar Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 118, 508-513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2008.05.020
[38] Yakubu, M.T., Akanji, M.A. and Oladiji, A.T. (2005) Aphrodisiac Potentials of the Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis Stem in Male Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Andrology, 7, 399-404.
[39] Pfaus, J.G. and Wilkins, M.F. (1995) A Novel Environment Disrupts Copulation in Sexually Naive but Not Experienced Male Rats: Reversal with Naloxone. Physiology and Behavior, 57, 1045-1049.
[40] Pfeiffer, C.A. and Johnston, R.E. (1994) Hormonal and Behavioral Responses of Male Hamsters to Females and Female Odors: Roles of Olfaction, the Vomeronasal System, and Sexual Experience. Physiology and Behavior, 55, 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(94)90020-5
[41] Brundege, J.M. and Williams, J.T. (2002) Differential Modulation of Nucleus Accumbens Synapses. Neurophysiology, 88, 142-151.
[42] Balfour, M.E., Yu, L. and Coolen, L.M. (2004) Sexual Behavior and Sex-Associated Environmental Cues Activate the Mesolimbic System in Male Rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 718-730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300350
[43] McGinnis, M.Y., Mirth, M.C., Zebrowski, A.F. and Dreifuss, R.M. (1989) Critical Exposure Time for Androgen Activation of Male Sexual Behavior in Rats. Physiology & Behavior, 46, 159-165.
[44] Losel, R.M., Falkenstein, E., Feuring, M., Schultz, A., Tillmann, H.C., Rossol-Haseroth, K. and Wehling, M. (2003) Nongenomic Steroid Action: Controversies, Questions, and Answers. Physiological Reviews, 83, 965-1016.
[45] Watson, C.S. and Gametchu, B. (2003) Proteins of Multiple Classes May Participate in Nongenomic Steroid Actions. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 228, 1272-1281.
[46] Zaki, A.K., Schmidt, J., Hammouda, F.M. and Adam, G. (1993) Steroid Constituents from Pollen Grain of Phoenix dactylifera. Planta Medica, 59, 613-614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959837
[47] Gauthaman, K. and Adaikan, P.G. (2008) The Hormonal Effects of Tribulus terrestris and Its Role in the Management of Male Erectile Dysfunction—An Evaluation Using Primates, Rabbit and Rat. Phytomedicine, 15, 44-54.
[48] Andersson, K.E. (2001) Pharmacology of Penile Erection. Pharmacological Reviews, 53, 417-450.
[49] Zamble, A., Sahpaz, S., Brunet, C. and Bailleul, F. (2008) Effects of Microdesmis keayana Roots on Sexual Behavior of Male Rats. Phytomedicine, 15, 625-629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2007.10.002
[50] Toda, N., Ayajiki, K. and Okamura, T. (2005) Nitric Oxide and Penile Erection Function. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 106, 233-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2004.11.011
[51] Morali, G., Lemus, A.E. and Munguia, R. (1993) Induction of Male Sexual Behavior in the Rat by 7 Alpha-Methyl-19-Nortestosterone, an Androgen that Does Not Undergo 5 Alpha-Reduction. Biology of Reproduction, 49, 577-581.
[52] Nieoullon, A. and Coquerel, A. (2003) Dopamine: A Key Regulator to Adaptation, Emotion, Motivation and Cognition. Current Opinion in Neurology, 16, S3-S9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00019052-200312002-00002
[53] Sahfiee, M. and Parivar, K. (2005) Effect of Pheonix dactylifera Extract on Testis and Spermatogenesis. MSc Thesis, Tarbiat Moalem University, Tehran.
[54] Pfaus, J.G., Kippin, T.E. and Centeno, S. (2001) Conditioning and Sexual Behavior: A Review. Hormones and Behavior, 402, 291-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.2001.1686
[55] Woodson, J.C. (2001) Including Learned Sexuality in the Organization of Sexual Behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 69-80.
[56] Swaney, W.T., Curley, J.P., Champagne, F.A. and Keverne, E.B. (2007) Genomic Imprinting Mediates Sexual Experience-Dependent Olfactory Learning in Male Mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 6084-6089. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0609471104
[57] Domjan, M., Blesbois, E. and Williams, J. (1998) The Adaptive Significance of Sexual Conditioning: Pavlovian Control of Sperm Release. Psychological Science, 9, 411-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00077
[58] Sandroni, P. (2001) Aphrodisiacs Past and Present: A Historical Review. Clinical Autonomic Research, 11, 303-307.
[59] Padashetty, S.A. and Mishra, S.H. (2007) Aphrodisiac Studies of Tricholepis glaberrima with Supportive Action from Antioxidant Enzymes. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45, 580-586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200701501326
[60] Abedi, A., Parviz, M., Karimian, S.M. and Sadeghipour Rodsari, H.R. (2013) Aphrodsiac Activity of Aqueous Extract of Phoenix dactylifera in Male Rats. Advances in Sexual Medicine, 3, 28-34.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.