Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana


Background: Hepatitis B virus is one of the transfusion transmission infectious agents of public health relevance. Its prevalence varies across the globe. Establishing the sero-prevalence of the disease is critical to informing the direction of preventive and control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study therefore was to establish the hepatitis B surface antigen sero-prevalence among blood donors in the Kintampo municipality of Ghana. Methodology: This three-year hospital based retrospective study was conducted at the laboratory unit of the Kintampo Municipal Hospital. The laboratory uses one step immunochromatographic test kits to detect the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen in the sera of blood donors. Records on blood donors were reviewed for hepatitis B sero-positivity. Results: A total of 3402 blood donors were studied, out of which 3238 (95.2%) were males and 164 (4.8%) were females. The overall sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 9.6% (327/3402). Majority of the sero-positive donors were less than 40 years, with higher prevalence of 16.4% (35/214) in donors less than 20 years. The sero-prevalence in males and females was 9.7% (313/3238) and 8.5% (14/164) respectively. Conclusion: The Kintampo municipality has a relatively high prevalence of hepatitis B among blood donors. The probability of hepatitis B viral infection was age inclined as the youth seem to be at greater risk of contracting the disease.

Share and Cite:

Walana, W. , Hokey, P. and Ahiaba, S. (2014) Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study in the Kintampo Municipal Hospital, Ghana. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 4, 64-69. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] WHO (2009) Hepatitis B Vaccines. Weekly Epidemiological Record.
[2] Ott, J.J., Stevens, G.A., Groeger, J. and Wiersma, S.T. (2012) Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: New Estimates of Age-Specific HBsAg Seroprevalence and Endemicity. Vaccine, 30, 2212-2219.
[3] Salisbury, D., Ramsay, M. and Noakes, K., Eds. (2006) Immunisation against Infectious Disease, London. The Stationary Office.
[4] Caley, M., Fowler, T., Greatrex, S. and Wood, A. (2012) Differences in Hepatitis B Infection Rate between Ethnic Groups in Antenatal Women in Birmingham, United Kingdom, May 2004 to December 2008. Eurosurveillance, 17, 20228.
[5] Kiire, C.F. (1996) The Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of Hepatitis B in Sub-Saharan Africa: A View from Tropical and Subtropical Africa. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 38, S5-S12.
[6] Ghana Immunization Programme (2010) Comprehensive Multiyear Plan (2010-2014) in line with Global Immunization Vision and Strategies, 10-45.
[7] Taylor, J.M., Purcell, R.H. and Farci, P. (2013) Hepatitis D (Delta) Virus. In: Knipe, D.M. and Howley, P.M., Eds., Fields Virology, 6th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
[8] Tong, S., Li, J., Wands, J.R. and Wen, Y. (2013) Hepatitis B Virus Genetic Variants: Biological Properties and Clinical Implications. Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2, e10.
[9] Tong, M.J., Hsu, L., Chang, P.W. and Blatt, L.M. (2011) Evaluation of Current Treatment Recommendations for Chronic Hepatitis B: A 2011 Update. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 26, 829-835.
[10] Adams, D.H. and Hubscher, S.G. (2006) Systemic Viral Infections and Collateral Damage in the Liver. American Journal of Pathology, 168, 1057-1059.
[11] Vinciguerra, M., Mazzoccoli, G., Piccol, C., Tataranni, T., Andriulli, A. and Pazienza, V. (2013) Exploitation of Host Clock Gene Machinery by Hepatitis Viruses B and C. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19, 8902-8909.
[12] Rehermann, B. and Nascimbeni, M. (2005) Immunology of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Nature Review. Immunology, 5, 215-229.
[13] CDC (2010) Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidline.
[14] CDC (2008) Recommendations for Identification and Public Health Management of Persons with Chronic Hepatitis b Virus Infection. MMWR, 57, 9-11.
[15] Mast, E.E., Weinbaum, C.M., Fiore, A.E., Alter, M.J., Bell, B.P., Finelli, L., Rodewald, E.L., Douglas, M., Janssen, R.S. and Ward, J. (2005) A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part 1: Immunization of Infants, Children, and Adolescents. MMWR Recommendations and Reports, 54, 1-31.
[16] MOH-Ghana (2006) National Blood Policy for the Health Sector. 5-25.
[17] World Health Organization (2006) Blood Transfusion Safety, Geneva.
[18] GSS (2012) 2010 Population and Housing Census Final Results. 1-15.
[19] Hou, J., Liu, Z. and Gu, F. (2005) Epidemiology and Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2, 50-57.
[20] Te, H.S. and Jensen, D.M. (2010) Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C Viruses: A Global Overview. Clinics in Liver Diseases, 14, 1-21.
[21] Lok, A.S. (2002) Chronic Hepatitis B. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 1682-1683.
[22] Gust, I.D. (1996) Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 38, S18-S23.
[23] Khan, F., Shams, S., Qureshi, D.I., Israr, M., Khan, H., Sarwar, T.M. and Ilyas, M. (2011) Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Different Sex and Age Groups in Pakistani Punjab. Virology Journal, 8, 225.
[24] Castolo, M.C., Ndez-Ruiz, L.H. and Ibarra-Robles, I.E., Rate, I.H.F.N. and Pena, J.E. (2001) Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Related Risk Factors in a Rural Community of Mexico. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 65, 759-763.
[25] Alam, M.M., Zaidi, S.Z., Malik, S.A., Shaukat, S., Naeem, A., Sharif, S., Angez, M. and Butt, J.A. (2007) Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Pakistan. BMC Infectious Diseases, 7, 115.
[26] Nkrumah, B., Owusu, M. and Averu, P. (2011) Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections among Blood Donors: A Retrospective Study from a Rural Community of Ghana. BMC Research Notes, 4, 529.
[27] Dongdem, T.J., Kampo, S., Soyiri, N.I., Asebga, N.P., Ziem B.J. and Sagoe, K. (2012) Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana (2009). BMC Research Notes, 5, 115.
[28] Saberton, P.J., Paez, A., Newbold, K.B. and Heddle, N.M. (2009) Geographical Variations in the Correlates of Blood Donor Turnout Rates: An Investigation of Canadian Metropolitan Areas. International Journal of Health Geographics, 8, 56.
[29] Salaudeen, A.G., Musa, O.I., Awoyemi, A.O., Bolarinwa, A.O., Adegboye, A.O. and Samuel, S.O. (2011) Community Survey on Blood Donation Practices in a Northern State of Nigeria. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 52, 21-25.
[30] Smith, A., Matthews, R. and Fiddle, J. (2011) Blood Donation and Community: Exploring the Influence of Social Capital. International Journal of Social Inquiry, 4, 45-63.
[31] Singh, B., Pandey, R.M., D’Souza, N., Anushyanthan, A., Krishna, V., Gupta, V., Chaudhary, M.M., Ganeshan, S., Jha, S., Uppal, S., Mehrara, V., Deepchand, R.D., Singh, Y., Hsia, K.M., Bhushan, S., Anand, V. and Singh, A.K. (2002) Knowlege, Attitudes and Socio-Demographic Factors Differentiating Blood Donors from Non-Donors in an Urban Slum of Delhi. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 27, 118-123.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.