Characterization of Conductive Nanographite Melamine Composites


Composites based on melamine formaldehyde resins filled with exfoliated graphite or so called nanographite have been prepared to achieve electrical conductivity and improve mechanical strength and thermal stability. The nanographite was synthesized by thermal treatment of oxidized graphite and the incorporation into the melamine matrix was accomplished during the melamine formaldehyde reaction. A homogenous dispersion of the filler in the matrix and the forming of a connecting network based on graphite sheets were proved by SEM images. The graphite filler was able to increase the flexural strength of molded testing specimens compared to unfilled resins and electrical conductivity was achieved starting at 2 wt% nanographite.

Share and Cite:

C. Pretschuh, C. Schwarzinger, A. Abdala and S. Vukusic, "Characterization of Conductive Nanographite Melamine Composites," Open Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 61-71. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2014.41007.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Q. Yin, A. Li, W. Wang, L. Xia and Y. Wang, “Study on the Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin/Graphite Composite for Bipolar Plate,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 165, No. 2, 2007, pp. 717-721.
[2] V. Causin, C. Marega, A. Marigo, G. Ferrera and A. Ferraro, “Morphological and Structural Characterization of Polypropylene/Conductive Graphite Nanocomposites,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 42, No. 12, 2006, pp. 3153-3161.
[3] V. S. Mirinov, J. K. Kim, M. Park, S. Lim and W. K. Cho, “Comparison of Electrical Conductivity Data Obtained by Four-Electrode and Four-Point Probe Methods for Graphite-Based Polymer Composites,” Polymer Testing, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2007, pp. 547-555.
[4] S. E. Bourdo and T. Viswanathan, “Graphite/Polyaniline Composites: Synthesis and Characterization,” Carbon, Vol. 43, No. 14, 2005, pp. 2983-2988.
[5] F. M. Uhl, Q. Yao, H. Nakajima, E. Manias and C. A. Wilkie, “Expandable Graphite/Polyamide-6 Nanocomposites,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2005, pp. 70-84.
[6] M. Inagaki, R. Tashiro, Y. Washino and M. Toyoda, “Exfoliation Process of Graphite via Intercalation Compounds with Sulfuric Acid,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Vol. 65, No. 2-3, 2004, pp. 133-137.
[7] Y. Zhu, S. Murali, M. D. Stoller, A. Velamakanni, R. D. Piner and R. S. Ruoff, “Microwave Assisted Exfoliation and Reduction of Graphite Oxide for Ultracapacitors,” Carbon, Vol. 48, No. 7, 2010, pp. 2118-2122.
[8] S. Duquesne, M. Le Bras, S. Bourbigot, R. Delobel, H. Vezin, G. Camino, B. Eling, C. Lindsay and T. Roels, “Expandable Graphite: A Fire Retardant Additive for Polyurethane Coatings,” Fire and Materials, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2003, pp. 103-117.
[9] I. M. Afanosow, D. V. Savchenko, S. G. Ionov, D. A. Rusakov, A. N. Seleznev and V. V. Avdeec, “Thermal Conductivity and Mechanical Properties of Expanded Graphite,” Inorganic Materials, Vol. 45, No. 5, 2009, pp. 486-490.
[10] A. Sari and A. Karaipekli, “Preparation, Thermal Properties and Thermal Reliability of Palmitic Acid Expanded Graphite Composite as Formstable PCM for Thermal Energy Storage,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 93, No. 5, 2009, pp. 571-576.
[11] G. Chen, W. Weng, D. Wu and C. Wu, “PMMA/Graphite Nanosheets Composite and Its Conducting Properties,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 39, No. 12, 2003, pp. 2329-2335.
[12] W. Zheng, S. Wong and H. Sue, “Transport Behaviour of PMMA/Expanded Graphite Nanocomposites,” Polymer, Vol. 43, No. 25, 2002, pp. 6767-6773.
[13] W. Zheng and S. Wong, “Electrical Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of PMMA/Expanded Graphite Composites,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 63, No. 2, 2003, pp. 225-235.
[14] K. Kalaitzidou, H. Fukushima and L. T. Drzal, “Mechanical Properties and Morphological Characterization of Exfoliated Graphite-Polypropylene Nanocomposites,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2007, pp. 1675-1682.
[15] K. Kalaitzidou, H. Fukushima and L. T. Drzal, “A New Compounding Method for Exfoliated Graphite-Polypropylene Nanocomposites with Enhanced Flexural Properties and Lower Percolation Threshold,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 67, No. 10, 2007, pp. 2045-2051.
[16] G. Chen, C. Wu, W. Weng, D. Wu and W. Yan, “Preparation of Polystyrene/Graphite Nanosheet Composite,” Polymer, Vol. 44, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1781-1784.
[17] P. Xiao, M. Xiao and K. Gong, “Preparation of Exfoliated Graphite/Polystyrene Composites by Polymerization-Filling-Technique,” Polymer, Vol. 42, No. 11, 2001, pp. 4813-4816.
[18] G. Zheng, J. Wu, W. Wang and C. Pan, “Characterizations of Expanded Graphite/Polymer Composites Prepared by in Situ Polymerization,” Carbon, Vol. 42, No. 14, 2004, pp. 2839-2847.
[19] L. Du and S. C. Jana, “Highly Conductive Epoxy/Graphite Composites for Bipolar Plates in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 172, No. 2, 2007, pp. 734-741.
[20] J. Li, J. Kim and M. L. Sham, “Conductive Graphite Nanoplatelet/Epoxy Nanocomposites: Effects of Exfoliation and UV/Ozone Treatment of Graphite,” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2005, pp. 235-240.
[21] Y. F. Zhao, M. Xiao, S. J. Wang, X. C. Ge and Y. Z. Meng, “Preparation and Properties of Electrically Conductive PPS/Expanded Graphite Nanocomposites,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 67, No. 11-12, 2007, pp. 2528-2534.
[22] X. S. Du, M. Xiao and Y. Z. Meng, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Conductive Polyaniline/Graphite Nanocomposites,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 40, No. 7, 2004, pp. 1489-1493.
[23] H. Wang, H. Zhang and G. Chen, “Preparation of Unsaturated Polyester/Graphite Nanosheet Conducting Composite under Electric Field,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 38, No. 10, 2007, pp. 2116-2120.
[24] Q. Yin, K. Sun, A. Li, L. Shao, S. Liu and C. Sun, “Study of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Phenol Formaldehyde Resin/Graphite Composite for Bipolar Plate,” Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 175, No. 2, 2008, pp. 861-865.
[25] X. Zhang, L. Shen, X. Xia, H. Wang and Q. Du, “Study on the Interface of Phenolic Resin/Expanded Graphite Composites Prepared via in Situ Polymerization,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 111, No. 2-3, 2008, pp. 368-374.
[26] T. Ramanathan, A. A. Abdala, S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, M. Herrera-Alonso, R. D. Piner, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, X. Chen, R. S. Ruoff, S. T. Nguyen, I. A. Aksay, R. K. Prud’homme and L. C. Brinson, “Functionalized Graphene Sheets for Polymer Nanocomposites,” Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 3, 2008, pp. 327-331.
[27] M. J. McAllister, J. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme and I. A. Aksay, “Single Sheet Functionalized Graphene by Oxidation and Thermal Expansion of Graphite,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 19, No. 18, 2007, pp. 4396-4404.
[28] H. C. Schniepp, J. Li, M. J. McAllister, H. Sai, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. H. Adamson, R. K. Prud’homme, R. Car, D. A. Saville and I. A. Aksay, “Functionalized Single Graphene Sheets Derived from Splitting Graphite Oxide,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 110, No. 17, 2006, pp. 8535-8539.
[29] B. Debelak and K. Lafdi, “Use of Exfoliated Graphite Filler to Enhance Polymer Physical Properties,” Carbon, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1727-1734.
[30] H. Herrera-Alonso, A. A. Abdala, M. J. McAllister, I. A. Aksay and R. K. Prud’homme, “Intercalation and Stitching of Graphite Oxide with Diaminoalkanes,” Langmuir, Vol. 23, No. 21, 2007, pp. 10644-10649.
[31] G. Chen, D. Wu, W. Weng and C. Wu, “Exfoliation of Graphite Flake and Its Nanocomposites,” Carbon, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2003, pp. 579-625.
[32] C. Schwarzinger and M. Leidl, “Analysis of N-Methylmelamine Resins with Combined GPC, HPLC Mass Spectrometric Techniques,” International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2007, pp. 143-154.
[33] T. D. T. Vo, M. Himmelsbach, M. Haunschmidt, W. Buchberger, C. Schwarzinger and C. W. Klampfl, “Improved Analysis of Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry Using Ion-Trap and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1213, No. 1, 2008, pp. 83-87.
[34] D. Stauffer and A. Aharony, “Introduction to Percolation Theory,” Taylor & Francis, London, 2003.
[35] D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechung Verschiedener Physikalischer Konstanten von Heterogenen Substanzen,” Annals of Physics, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1935, pp. 636-664.
[36] L. Jylh? and A. Sihvola, “Differential Equation for the Effective Permittivity of Random Mixture of Spheres,” International URSI Commission B—Electromagnetic Theory Symposium, Ottawa, 26-28 July 2007.

Copyright © 2021 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.