Technology Policy Implementation Road: Exploring Firms’ Technology Readiness in a Mandatory Vertical Diffusion Environment


Technology Transfer and Technology Diffusion body of knowledge emerge from the research interest to explore the demand side of technology transfer by identifying the firm’s technology readiness to operate a new technology—product and process—in the context of the transfer of technology from a single source to multiple receivers/users—termed vertical diffusion—, where the adoption is by mandate. Demarcating the e-Invoice document as technology transfer object, this paper presents results of quantitative study performed with data collected from a 137 small retail firms, oriented to identify their technology readiness in terms of technology infrastructure and skills to operate under the electronic invoice legal procedure, as well as their perceived barriers for the diffusion. Results of factor analysis reveal insufficient information among all the participant firms, reflecting poor communication from the technology source, low awareness for the software solution available and of the competences/skills required to operate it as well as a passive attitude from the adopter who leans in a third party option to face the mandate.

Share and Cite:

V. Erosa, "Technology Policy Implementation Road: Exploring Firms’ Technology Readiness in a Mandatory Vertical Diffusion Environment," Journal of Service Science and Management, Vol. 6 No. 5A, 2013, pp. 20-31. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2013.65A003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] X. Y. Yu, “International Economic Law,” University Press, Nanjing, 1990.
[2] P. G. Abbott, “Technology Transfer in the Construction Industry Infrastructure and Industrial Development,” Special Report No. 223, The Economist Intelligence Unit, The Economist Publications Ltd., London, 1985.
[3] J. D. Roessner, “Technology Transfer,” In: C. Hill, Ed., Science and Technology Policy in the US. A Time of Change, Longman, London, 2000.
[4] L. M. Zhao and A. Reisman, “Toward Meta Research on technology-Transfer,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1992, pp. 13-21.
[5] B. Bozeman, “Technology Transfer and Public Policy: A Review of Research and Theory,” Research Policy, Vol. 29, No. 4-5, 2000, pp. 677-625.
[6] W. Souder, “Managing New Products Innovations,” D. C. Heath Canada, Limited, Ma. Lexington, 1987.
[7] A. Rubenstein, “Managing Technology in a Decentralized Firm,” Wiley, New York, 1989.
[8] E. Rogers, “Diffusion of Innovations,” 5th Edition, Free Press, New York, 2003, p. 12.
[9] D. Leonard-Barton and E. Rogers, “Horizontal Diffusion: An Alternative Paradigm to the Classical Diffusion Model,” Working Paper No. 1284-81, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1981.
[10] R. Fichman, “Information Technology Diffusion: A Review of Empirical Research,” Proceedings ICIS’92. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems, University of Minessota, Mineapolis, 1992, pp. 195-206.
[11] D. Leonard-Barton and I. Deschamps, “Managerial Influencies in the Implementation of New Technology,” Management Science, Vol. 34, No. 10, 1988, pp. 1252-1265.
[12] G. C. Moore and I. Benbasat, “Development of an Instrument to Measure the Perceptions of Adopting an Information Technology Innovation,” Information Systems Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1991, pp. 192-222.
[13] E. Roberts and L. Frohman, “Strategies for Improving Research Utilization,” Technology Review, Vol. 80, No. 5. 1978, pp. 32-39.
[14] E. Roberts, “What We Have Learned: Managing Innovation and Invention,” Research-Technology Management, Vol. 50, No. 1, 1988, pp. 11-19.
[15] G. Gaynor, “Innovation by Design,” American Management Association, New York, 2002, p. 84.
[16] D. Leonard-Barton, “The Intra-Organizational Environment: Point-to-Point vs. Diffusion,” In: F. Williams and D. Gibson, Eds., Technology Transfer, A Communication Perspective, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, 1990, pp. 43-62.
[17] L. Smits, J. Leyten and P. den Hertog, “Technology Assessment and Technology Policy in Europe: New Concepts, New goals, New Infrastructure,” Policy Science, Vol. 28, No. 3, 1995, pp. 271-299.
[18] P. K. De, “Gap between Strategy and Management of Technology: A Review of Indian Scenario,” In: Hosni and Kalil, Eds., Management of Technology. Internet Economy: Opportunities and Challenges for Developed and Developing Regions of the World, Elsevier, Ltd., Amsterdam, 2004.
[19] L.-H. Richard, “From Technology Transfer to Knowledge Transfer. A Study of International Joint Venture Projects in China,” Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Technology Management, (IAMOT), Nancy, 13-15 May 2003, pp. 1-16.
[20] E. Autio and T. Laamanen, “Measurement and Evaluation of Technology Transfer: Review of Technology Transfer Mechanisms and Indicators,” International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 10, No. 7-8, 1995, pp. 643-664.
[21] A. Thomas, “Acquisition and Licensing of Intellectual Property,” Managerial Law, Vol. 40 No. 6, 1998, pp. 5-15.
[22] R. Megantz, “Technology Management: Developing and Implementing Effective Licensing Programs,” John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 2002.
[23] G. Spinardi, “Defense Technology Enterprises,” Science and Public Policy, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1992, pp. 198-206.
[24] J. Mollas-Gallart and T. Sinclair, “From Technology Generation to Technology Transfer: The Concept and Reality of the ‘Dual-Use technology Centers’,” Economic and Social Research Council, International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation, Lisbon, 3-5 August 1998, pp. 1-10.
[25] P. Shapira and S. Rosenfeld, “An Overview of Technology Diffusion Policies and Programs to Enhance the Technological Absorptive Capabilities of Small and Medium Enterprises,” Organization for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD), Directorate of Science, Technology and Industry, Paris, 1996.
[26] G. Tassey, “Technology Infrastructure and Competitive Position,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, 1992.
[27] D. Leonard-Barton, “Applying Innovations Diffusion Theory to the Management of Change,” Working Paper No. 1295-82, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1982.
[28] H. Ergas, “Does Technology Policy Matter?” In: B. Guile and H. Brooks, Eds., Technology and Global Industry: Companies and Nations in the World Economy, National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1987, pp. 191-280.
[29] D. Sahal, “The Form of Technology,” In: D. Sahal, Ed., The Transfer and Utilization of Technical Knowledge, Lexington Publishing, Lexington, 1982, pp. 125-139.
[30] Federation Official Bulletin January 5th 2004. Mexican Government, Mexico. DOF. Diario Oficial de la Federación del 5 de Enero del 2004.
[31] Federation Official Bulletin May 30th, 2000, Mexican Government, Mexico. DOF. Diario Oficial de la Federación del 30 de Mayo del 2000.
[32] V. E. Erosa and P. Arroyo, “Characteristics of Firms Interested in e-Invoice Adoption, in Change Commitment,” Mexican Association for Electronic Commerce, Mexico, 2003, pp. 269-291. (Caracteristicas de las empresas que tienen interés en incorporarse a la Factura Electronica. In El Compromiso con el Cambio: Identificando Oportunidades de Negocios en la Cadena de Valor. AMECE. Asociacion Mexicana de Estandares para el Comercio Electronico. Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo. México, Mayo 2003.)
[33] Tax Management System, “Tax Management Report,” 2013. Mexico, 2013, pp. 4. SAT. Sistema de Administracion Tributaria. Informe Tributario y de Gestion. 2 Trimestre 2013. Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico. Sistema de Administracion Tributaria. 2013.
[34] L. F. S. Velazco, “E-Invoice Statistics in April 30, 2013,” Estadisticas de la Factura Electronica. Suplementos Corporativos, S. A. de C. V. Suplemento Factura Electronica, 2013.
[35] V. E. Erosa and P. Arroyo, “Readiness Analysis for Data Base Synchronization between Clients and Suppliers,” Informatics Policy Bulletin/ Boletín de Politica Informatica. INEGI. Mexico, 2003. Ano XXVI. Numero 1, pp. 31-5.
[36] V. E. Erosa. “Technology Gap among Suppliers and Pop & Mom Stores as a Key Distribution Cost Issue,” Management of Engineering and Technology, 2008. Proceedings PICMET 2008. Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology 2008, Capetown, 27-31 July 2008, pp. 2623-2630.
[37] National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics, “Statistics Yearbook of the United Mexican States,” Mexico 2013, pp. 470, Table 16.1. INEGI. 2013. Anuario Estadistico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, 2012-2013. 470. Cuadro 16.1.
[38] J. Stevens, “Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences,” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hissdale, 1986.
[39] J. Hair, W. Black, B. Babin, R. Anderson and R. Tatham, “Multivariate Data Analysis,” 6th Edition, MacMillan Publishing Company, New York, 2006.
[40] Tax Management System, Mexico, “Information about e-Invoice (2013),” Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico. SAT. Sistema de Administracion Tributaria Informacion sobre Factura Electronica (2013). 2013.
[41] Tax Management System, Mexico, “Assistance about e-Invoice (2013),” Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico. SAT. Sistema de Administracion Tributaria Asistencia sobre Factura Electronica (2013). 2013.
[42] F. D. Davis, “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology”, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1989, pp. 319-339.
[43] A. Eagly and S. Chaiken, “The Psychology of Attitudes,” Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Fort Worth, 1993, p. 1.
[44] M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, “Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An introduction to Theory and Research,” Addison Wesley, Reading, 1975.
[45] V. E. Erosa, “Comparative Analysis of Technology Based Business Practices among Retail Industry Firms. A Binational Approach between Tamaulipas. Mexico and Texas USA,” Mexico-United States Research Journal. CIMEXUS, Vol. V, No. 2 July-December, 2010, pp. 163-202. Analisis comparativo de las practicas de negocio basadas en tecnologia en empresas del Sector Comercio Minorista. Un enfoque binacional en la zona fronteriza Tamaulipas-Texas. CIMEXUS. Revista de Investigaciones Mexico-Estados Unidos, 2010
[46] T. Janner, F. Lampathaki, V. Hoyer, S. Mouzakitis, Y. Charalabidis and C. Schroth, “A Core Component-Based Modelling Approach for Achieving e-Business Semantics Interoperability,” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Talca, 2008, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1-16.
[47] R. Odigie and L. Hua, “Unlocking the Channel of Tacit Knowledge Transit: The Concept of Technology Transfer in Developing Countries,” In: CAMOT 2008 International Conference Proceedings (Hendrix, Ed.) Technology Management and Innovation in China. Beijing, 2008.
[48] V. E. Erosa, “Dealing with Cultural Issues in the Triple Helix Model Implementation: A Comparison among Government, University and Business Culture,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier, Vol. 52, 2012, pp. 25-34.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.