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Gut Microbiota: Physiology and Relationship with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.37039    3,214 Downloads   5,574 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The intestinal microbiota, which evolved over tens of thousands of years along with their human hosts, constitutes a complex and diverse ecosystem whose composition differs from person to person. Accumulating evidence indicates that commensal bacteria exert numerous beneficial physiological effects for humans, including nutrition, protection, metabolism, organ development and immunomodulation. However, mucosal immune responses to intestinal microflora require precise control to allow appropriate defense against potential pathogens but restrict the immune response to beneficial resident bacteria. The task of intestinal homeostasis is accomplished by epithelium and specialized immune system in the gastrointestinal tract. Alternation in the composition of the bacterial community, consisting of increased representation of harmful species or under presence of protective species, or dysbiosis has been linked to various chronic and inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease. An improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of host-microorganism interactions could bring new insights into onset and pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss physiologic properties of commensal microbiota and how dysregulated immune responses to them contribute to chronic mucosal inflammation.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

C. Lin, Y. Lin and H. Chen, "Gut Microbiota: Physiology and Relationship with Inflammatory Bowel Disease," Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2013, pp. 283-292. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.37039.

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