Vehicle to Grid Decentralized Dispatch Control Using Consensus Algorithm with Constraints


With the transition to electric vehicle technologies, large scale support infrastructure is being deployed. The vehicleto-grid (V2G) concept is an opportunity to take advantage from both infrastructure and electric vehicle drive. However, coordinating large number of agents in a reasonable speed and lack of homogenous distribution of the service provided by vehicle users to the grid have been left unattended. We apply consensus theory to the V2G concept presenting a decentralized control solution to assure that all vehicles within a region, regardless of their technology, positioning or state of charge, can communicate with their neighbors and agree on how much energy each should individually exchange with the grid. Applying constraints to the system, we considered a 25,000 vehicle fleet connected to a grid during peak hours. Simulating power changes and vehicles entering and leaving the system, two groups of 5 vehicles were studied: the first group remained in the system during all peak hours, while the second group only an hour. Results showed that the two groups of vehicles despite connecting to the system at different times were able to reach consensus in t = 15 s, and reported a maximum error of ε < 0.01% if left in the system during all peak hours.

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A. Lucas and S. Chang, "Vehicle to Grid Decentralized Dispatch Control Using Consensus Algorithm with Constraints," Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, Vol. 4 No. 6A, 2013, pp. 8-20. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2013.46A002.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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