Share This Article:

Eye Blink Responses to the Four Basic Taste Stimuli in Healthy Young Humans

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:142KB) PP. 379-384
DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.34038    3,672 Downloads   5,453 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Taste stimuli can elicit facial responses, and the facial responses may be useful indexes of taste sensations. In this study, we propose that eye blinking is also elicited by taste stimuli and we examined eye blink responses in six healthy young adults. Low and high concentration solutions of the four basic taste qualities (sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness) and distilled water were delivered via a silicone tube. Facial responses were recorded by a video camera and eye blink responses were identified. The number of eye blinks in the 5 s following stimulation, and the latency and duration of the first eye blink, were quantified. High concentrations of sour and bitter solutions increased the number of eye blinks (195% and 227%, respectively; P < 0.01), and shortened the latency (68% and 62%; P < 0.05) and prolonged the duration (188% and 184%; P < 0.05) of the first eye blink compared to distilled water. Eye blink responses may be due to a gustofacial reflex and/or a myotatic reflex within the facial muscles. These results suggest that the eye blink response can be used as an index of gustofacial response.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

I. Ashida, Y. Tamaki and Y. Miyaoka, "Eye Blink Responses to the Four Basic Taste Stimuli in Healthy Young Humans," Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 379-384. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.34038.

References

[1] W. A. Roger, “The Scientific Basis of Eating: Taste and Smell, Salivation, Mastication and Swallowing and Their Dysfunctions (Frontiers of Oral Biology),” Karger, New York, 1998.
[2] C. Rouby, B. Schaal, D. Dubois, R. Gervais and A. Holley, “Olfaction, Taste, and Cognition,” Cambridge University Press, New York, 2002.
[3] C. S. Li, Y. K. Cho and D. V. Smith, “Taste Responses of Neurons in the Hamster Solitary Nucleus Are Modulated by the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala,” Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 88, No. 6, 2002, pp. 2979-2992. doi:10.1152/jn.00239.2002
[4] Y. Miyaoka and T. C. Pritchard, “Responses of Primate Cortical Neurons to Unitary and Binary Taste Stimuli,” Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 75, No. 1, 1996, pp. 396-411.
[5] S. S. Stevens, “On the Psychophysical Law,” Psychological Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, 1957, pp. 153-181. doi:10.1037/h0046162
[6] R. Weiland, H. Ellgring and M. Macht, “Gustofacial and Olfactofacial Responses in Human Adults,” Chemical Senses, Vol. 35, No. 9, 2010, pp. 841-853.
[7] R. Norgren, “Taste Pathways to Hypothalamus and Amygdala,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, Vol. 166, No. 1, 1976, pp. 17-30. doi:10.1002/cne.901660103
[8] J. E. Steiner, “Human Facial Expressions in Response to Taste and Smell Stimulation,” Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 13, 1979, pp. 257-295.
[9] T. Horio, “EMG Activities of Facial and Chewing Muscles of Human Adults in Response to Taste Stimuli,” Perceptual & Motor Skills, Vol. 97, No. 1, 2003, pp. 289-298. doi:10.2466/pms.2003.97.1.289
[10] J. E. Steiner, “The Gustofacial Response: Observation on Normal and Anencephalic Newborn Infants,” Symposium on Oral Sensation and Perception, Vol. 4, 1973, pp. 254-278.
[11] H. J. Grill and R. Norgren, “The Taste Reactivity test. I. Mimetic Responses to Gustatory Stimuli in Neurologically Normal Rats,” Brain Research, Vol. 143, No. 2, 1978, pp. 263-279. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(78)90568-1
[12] C. Pfaffmann, “Gustatory Nerve Impulses in Rat, Cat and Rabbit,” Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 18, No. 5, 1955, pp. 429-440.
[13] U. Hess, G. Sabourin and R. E. Kleck, “Postauricular and Eyeblink Startle Responses to Facial Expressions,” Psychophysiology, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2007, pp. 431-435. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00516.x
[14] J. M. Weiffenbach, “Taste-Quality Recognition and Forced-Choice Response,” Perception & Psychophysics, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1983, pp. 251-254. doi:10.3758/BF03202861
[15] J. H. Hong, J. W. Chung, Y. K. Kim, S. C. Chung, S. W. Lee and H. S. Kho, “The Relationship between PTC Taster Status and Taste Thresholds in Young Adults,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, Vol. 99, No. 6, 2005, pp. 711-715. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2004.08.004
[16] D. H. McBurney, “A Note on the Relation between Area and Intensity in Taste,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1969, p. 250. doi:10.3758/BF03207027
[17] L. Bour, B. Ongerboer de Visser, M. Aramideh and J. Speelman, “Origin of Eye and Eyelid Movements during Blinking,” Movement Disorders, Vol. 17, Suppl. 2, 2002, pp. S30-S32. doi:10.1002/mds.10047
[18] C. Evinger, K. A. Manning and P. A. Sibony, “Eyelid Movements. Mechanisms and Normal Data,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1991, pp. 387-400.
[19] P. J. Whalen and B. S. Kapp, “Contributions of the Amygdaloid Central Nucleus to the Modulation of the Nictitating Membrane Reflex in the Rabbit,” Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 105, No. 1, 1991, pp. 141-153. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.105.1.141
[20] T. Canli and T. H. Brown, “Amygdala Stimulation Enhances the Rat Eyeblink Reflex through a Short-Latency Mechanism,” Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 110, No. 1, 1996, pp. 51-59. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.110.1.51
[21] V. V. Fanardjian and L. R. Manvelyan, “Mechanisms Regulating the Activity of Facial Nucleus Motoneurons— III. Synaptic Influences from the Cerebral Cortex and Subcortical Structures,” Neuroscience, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1987, pp. 835-843. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(87)90244-2

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.