Measurement of Emissions from a Passenger Truck Fueled with Biodiesel from Different Feedstocks

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A1010   PDF   HTML     4,043 Downloads   5,676 Views   Citations


Biodiesel has generated increased interest recently as an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel. Due to its high oxygen content, biodiesel typically burns more completely than petroleum diesel, and thus has lower emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM). However, biodiesel may increase or decrease nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, depending on biodiesel feedstock, engine type, and test cycle. The purpose of this study was to compare emissions from 20% blends of biodiesel made from 4 feedstocks (soybean oil, canola oil, waste cooking oil, and animal fat) with emissions from ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD). Emissions of NOx and CO2 were made under real-world driving conditions using a Horiba On-Board Measurement System OBS-1300 on a highway route and arterial route; emissions of NOx, CO2, HC, CO, and PM were measured in a controlled setting using a chassis dynamometer with Urban Dynamometer Drive Schedule. Dynamometer test results showed statistically significant lower emissions of HC, CO, and PM from all B20 blends compared to ULSD. For CO2, both on-road testing (arterial, highway, and idling) and dynamometer testing showed no statistically significant difference in emissions among the B20 blends and ULSD. For NOx, dynamometer testing showed only B20 from soybean oil to have statistically significant higher emissions. This is generally consistent with the on-road testing, which showed no statistically significant difference in NOx emissions between ULSD and the B20 blends.

Share and Cite:

N. Pala-En, M. Sattler, B. Dennis, V. Chen and R. Muncrief, "Measurement of Emissions from a Passenger Truck Fueled with Biodiesel from Different Feedstocks," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 8A, 2013, pp. 74-82. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A1010.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. Fernando, H. Chris and S. Jha, “NOx Reduction from Biodiesel Fuels,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, pp. 376-382. doi:10.1021/ef050202m
[2] US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Forecast and Analysis of Energy Data, “International Energy Outlook 2008,” Report DOE/EIA-0484, 2008.
[3] G. A. Ban-Weiss, J. Y. Chen, B. A. Buchholz and R. W. Dibble, “A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory,” Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 88, No. 7, 2007, pp. 659-667. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.01.007
[4] R. L. McCormick, “NREL Final Report. SR-510-31465,” 2003.
[5] G. Karavalakis, S. Stournas and E. Bakeas, “Light Vehicle Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from Different Biodiesels,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 407, No. 10, 2009, pp. 3338-3346. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.12.063
[6] C. L. Peterson, J. S. Taberski, J. C. Thompson and C. L. Chase, “The Effect of Biodiesel Feedstock on Regulated Emissions in Chassis Dynamometer Tests of a Pickup Truck,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1371-1381.
[7] H. Aydina and C. Ilkilic, “Effect of Ethanol Blending with Biodiesel on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a CI Engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1199-1204. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.01.037
[8] G. Fontaras, G. Karavalakis, M. Kousoulidou, T. Tzamkiozis, L. Ntziachristos, E. Bakeas, S. Stournas and Z. Samaras, “Effects of Biodiesel on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption, Regulated and Non-Regulated Pollutant Emissions over Legislated and Real-World Driving Cycles,” Fuel, Vol. 88, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1608-1617. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2009.02.011
[9] M. Gumus and S. Kasifoglu, “Performance and Emission Evaluation of a Compression Ignition Engine Using a Biodiesel (Apricot Seed Kernel Oil Methyl Ester) and Its Blends with Diesel Fuel,” Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2010, pp. 134-139. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.10.010
[10] K. Ryu, “The Characteristics of Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using a Biodiesel with Antioxidants,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 1, 2010, pp. S78-S82. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.05.034
[11] H. C. Frey and K. Kim, “Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 1987, 2006, pp. 110-117. doi:10.3141/1987-12
[12] K. Ropkins, R. Quinn, J. Beebe, H. Li, B. Daham, J. Tate, M. Bell and A. Gordon, “Real-World Comparison of Probe Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Diesel and 5% Biodiesel (B5) Blend,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 376, No. 1-3, 2007, pp. 267-284. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.11.021
[13] H. C. Frey, W. J. Rasdorf, K. Kim, S. H. Pang and P. Lewis, “Comparison of Real-World Emissions of B20 Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel for Selected Nonroad Vehicles and Engine Tiers,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2058, 2008, pp. 33-42. doi:10.3141/2058-05
[14] H. C. Frey and K. Kim, “In-Use Measurement of Activity, Fuel Use, and Emissions of Cement Mixer Trucks Operated on Petroleum Diesel and B20 Biodiesel,” Transportation Research—Part D, Vol. 14, No. 8, 2009, pp. 585-592. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2009.08.004
[15] M. E. Tat, “Investigation of Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions from Biodiesel Fueled Engines,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, 2003.
[16] C. D. Rakopoulous, K. A. Antonopoulos, D. C. Rakopoulos, D. T. Hountalas and E. G. Giakoumis, “Comparative Performance and Emissions Study of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Blends of Diesel Fuel with Vegetable Oils or Bio-Diesels of Various Origins,” Energy Conservation and Management, Vol. 47, No. 18-19, 2006, pp. 3272-3287. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2006.01.006
[17] R. L. Muncrief, C. W. Rooks, M. Cruz and P. H. Michael, “Combining Biodiesel and Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Reduction in NOx and Particulate Emissions,” Energy & Fuels, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2008, pp. 1285-1296. doi:10.1021/ef700465p
[18] G. Karavalakis, S. Stournas and E. Bakeas, “Effects of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends on Regulated and Unregulated Pollutants from a Passenger Vehicle Operated over the European and the Athens Driving Cycles,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1745-1752. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.033
[19] F. Wu, J. Wang, W. Chen and S. Shuai, “A Study on Emission Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Five Typical Methyl Ester Biodiesels,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, No. 7, 2009, pp. 1481-1485. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.007
[20] M. Kousoulidou, G. Fontaras, L. Ntziachristos and Z. Samaras, “Biodiesel Blend Effects on Common-Rail Diesel Combustion and Emissions,” Fuel, Vol. 89, No. 11, 2010, pp. 3442-3449. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2010.06.034
[21] Y. Lin, Y. G. Wu and C. Chang, “Combustion Characteristics of Waste-Oil Produced Biodiesel/Diesel Fuel Blends,” Fuel, Vol. 86, No. 12-13, 2007, pp. 2810-2816. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2007.01.012
[22] Z. Utlu and M. S. Kocak, “The Effect of Biodiesel Fuel Obtained from Waste Frying Oil on Direct Injection Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 33, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1936-1941. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.10.006
[23] M. Kocak, E. Ileri and Z. Utlu, “Experimental Study of Emission Parameters of Biodiesel Fuel Obtained from Canola, Hazelnut and Waste Cooking Oils,” Energy and Fuels, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2007, pp. 3622-3626. doi:10.1021/ef0600558
[24] N. Pala En, “On-Road Measurement of NOx and CO2 Emissions from Biodiesel Produced from Different Feedstocks,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, 2012.
[25] H. C. Frey, N. M. Rouphail, A. Unal and J. D. Colyar, “Measurement of On-Road Tailpipe CO, NOx and Hydrocarbon Emissions Using a Portable Instrument,” The Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Orlando, 24-28 June 2001, pp. 1-20.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.