Immune Control of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection by Cell-Mediated and Humoral Responses


Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) is a retrovirus that establishes a persistent infection in horses and ponies. The virus is in the same lentivirus subgroup that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The similarities between these two viruses make the study of the immune response to EIAV relevant to research on HIV. We developed a mathematical model of within-host EIAV infection dynamics that contains both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Analysis of the model yields results on thresholds that would be necessary for a combined immune response to successfully control infection. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the results. These findings have the potential to lead to immunological control measures for lentiviral infection.

Share and Cite:

E. Schwartz, K. Pawelek, K. Harrington, R. Cangelosi and S. Madrid, "Immune Control of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection by Cell-Mediated and Humoral Responses," Applied Mathematics, Vol. 4 No. 8A, 2013, pp. 171-177. doi: 10.4236/am.2013.48A023.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. M. Ciupe, et al., “Modeling the Mechanisms of Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 247, No. 1, 2007, pp. 23-35. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.02.017
[2] H. Dahari, et al., “The Extrahepatic Contribution to HCV Plasma Viremia,” Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2006, pp. 626-627. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2006.07.004
[3] D. D. Ho, et al., “Rapid Turnover of Plasma Virions and CD4 Lymphocytes in HIV-1 Infection,” Nature, Vol. 373, No. 6510, 1995, pp. 123-126. doi:10.1038/373123a0
[4] A. U. Neumann, et al., “Hepatitis C Viral Dynamics in Vivo and the Antiviral Efficacy of Interferon-Alpha Therapy,” Science, Vol. 282, No. 5386, 1998, pp. 103-107. doi:10.1126/science.282.5386.103
[5] X. Wei, et al., “Viral Dynamics in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection,” Nature, Vol. 373, No. 6510, 1995, pp. 117-122. doi:10.1038/373117a0
[6] K. A. Pawelek, et al., “Modeling Within-Host Dynamics of Influenza Virus Infection Including Immune Responses,” PLoS Computational Biology, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2012, Article ID: e1002588. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002588
[7] C. Leroux, J. L. Cadore and R. C. Montelaro, “Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): What Has HIV’s Country Cousin Got to Tell Us?” Veterinary Research, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2004, pp. 485-512. doi:10.1051/vetres:2004020
[8] E. W. Cupp and M. J. Kemen, “The Role of Stable Flies and Mosquitoes in the Transmission of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus,” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, Vol. 84, 1980, pp. 362-367.
[9] C. J. Issel and L. D. Foil, “Studies on Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Transmission by Insects,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 184, No. 3, 1984, pp. 293-297.
[10] J. E. Pearson and C. A. Gipson, “Standardization of Equine Infectious-Anemia Immunodiffusion and Celisa Tests and Their Application to Control of the Disease in the UnitedStates,” Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1988, pp. 60-61. doi:10.1016/S0737-0806(88)80113-8
[11] B. Zhang, et al., “Mapping of Equine Lentivirus Receptor 1 Residues Critical for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Binding,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1204-1213. doi:10.1128/JVI.01393-07
[12] C. Chung, R. H. Mealey and T. C. McGuire, “CTL from EIAV Carrier Horses with Diverse MHC Class I Alleles Recognize Epitope Clusters in Gag Matrix and Capsid Proteins,” Virology, Vol. 327, No. 1, 2004, pp. 144-154. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2004.06.035
[13] R. H. Mealey, et al., “Early Detection of Dominant EnvSpecific and Subdominant Gag-Specific CD8+ Lymphocytes in Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Infected Horses Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I/Peptide Tetrameric Complexes,” Virology, Vol. 339, No. 1, 2005, pp. 110-126. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.05.025
[14] S. D. Taylor, et al., “Protective Effects of Broadly Neutralizing Immunoglobulin against Homologous and Heterologous Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection in Horses with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 85, No. 13, 2011, pp. 6814-6818. doi:10.1128/JVI.00077-11
[15] Y. Kono, et al., “Recrudescence of Equine Infectious Anemia by Treatment with Immunosuppressive Drugs,” National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Tokyo), Vol. 16, No. 1, 1976, pp. 8-15.
[16] A. S. Perelson, “Modelling Viral and Immune System Dynamics,” Nature Reviews Immunology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2002, pp. 28-36. doi:10.1038/nri700
[17] M. A. Nowak and C. R. Bangham, “Population Dynamics of Immune Responses to Persistent Viruses,” Science, Vol. 272, No. 5258, 1996, pp. 74-79. doi:10.1126/science.272.5258.74
[18] A. S. Perelson, et al., “HIV-1 Dynamics in Vivo: Virion Clearance Rate, Infected Cell Life-Span, and Viral Generation Time,” Science, Vol. 271, No. 5255, 1996, pp. 1582-1586. doi:10.1126/science.271.5255.1582
[19] S. M. Ciupe, P. De Leenheer and T. B. Kepler, “Paradoxical Suppression of Poly-Specific Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies in the Presence of Strain-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies Following HIV Infection,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 277, No. 1, 2011, pp. 55-66. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.01.050
[20] R. Antia, S. S. Pilyugin and R. Ahmed, “Models of Immune Memory: On the Role of Cross-Reactive Stimulation, Competition, and Homeostasis in Maintaining Immune Memory,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Vol. 95, No. 25, 1998, pp. 1492614931. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.25.14926
[21] D. Wodarz, “Hepatitis C Virus Dynamics and Pathology: The Role of CTL and Antibody Responses,” The Journal of General Virology, Vol. 84, 2003, pp. 1743-1750. doi:10.1099/vir.0.19118-0
[22] N. Yousfi, K. Hattaf and M. Rachik, “Analysis of a HCV Model with CTL and Antibody Responses,” Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 57, 2009, pp. 2835-2846.
[23] C. Janeway, “Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease,” 6th Edition, Garland Science, New York, 2005, 823 p.
[24] S. M. Harrold, et al., “Tissue Sites of Persistent Infection and Active Replication of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus during Acute Disease and Asymptomatic Infection in Experimentally Infected Equids,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 74, No. 7, 2000, pp. 3112-3121. doi:10.1128/JVI.74.7.3112-3121.2000
[25] J. L. Oaks, et al., “Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Is Found in Tissue Macrophages during Subclinical Infection,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 72, No. 9, 1998, pp. 72637269.
[26] R. M. Anderson and R. M. May, “Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1991.
[27] S. Bonhoeffer, et al., “Virus Dynamics and Drug Therapy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Vol. 94, No. 13, 1997, pp. 6971-6976. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.13.6971
[28] D. D. Ho and Y. Huang, “The HIV-1 Vaccine Race,” Cell, Vol. 110, No. 2, 2002, pp. 135-138. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00832-2
[29] S. J. Little, et al., “Viral Dynamics of Acute HIV-1 Infection,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 190, No. 6, 1999, pp. 841-850. doi:10.1084/jem.190.6.841
[30] D. Wodarz, “On the Relative Fitness of Early and Late Stage Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Isolates,” Theoretical Population Biology, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2007, pp. 426435. doi:10.1016/j.tpb.2007.03.005
[31] R. M. Ribeiro, et al., “Estimation of the Initial Viral Growth Rate and Basic Reproductive Number during Acute HIV1 Infection,” Journal of Virology, Vol. 84, No. 12, 2010, pp. 6096-6102. doi:10.1128/JVI.00127-10
[32] P. van den Driessche and J. Watmough, “Reproduction Numbers and Sub-Threshold Endemic Equilibria for Compartmental Models of Disease Transmission,” Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 180, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 29-48. doi:10.1016/S0025-5564(02)00108-6

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.