Chemical Compositions of Lonchocarpus cyanescens Benth., (Fabaceae)—Case Study of Its Volatile Oils, and Two Triterpenoids


Leaf and stem essential oils of Lonchocarpus cyanescens Benth., (Fabaceae) were obtained by hydro-distillation, using all-glass apparatus adapted to British Pharmacopeia specifications with yields of 0.03% and 0.17% respectively. The oils were investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Results show seven compounds were responsible for 90.4% of leaf; eleven compounds responsible for 97.6% of stem volatile oils. Phytol (62.5%) and hexadecanoic acid (12.4%) dominate the leaf oil; octadecenoic (24.1%) and hexadecanoic acids (17.2%) are predominant in the stem oil. Phytochemical screening of stem, leaf, and root methanol extracts of Lonchocarpus cyanescens reveal presence of following seven classes of metabolites: saponin, tannin, steroid, terpenoid, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins and flavonoids. Partitioning of methanol extract from dried leaf of it with ethylacetate gave fraction, which was chromatographed using gradient elution. TLC with high Rf was used in monitoring elution. Two white crystalline solids eluted at 5% and 10% ethylethanoate in hexane, were re-crystallized and characterized. They were subjected to Infra-Red spectra, mass spectrometry (ESI technique), 1H and 13C-NMR analyses, which confirmed they are triterpenoids. Above mentioned metabolites may be responsible for literature acclaimed bio-activities L. cyanescens display [anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-microbial effects]. This paper presents details of above results which are new in literature.

Share and Cite:

D. Moronkola and I. Oladosu, "Chemical Compositions of Lonchocarpus cyanescens Benth., (Fabaceae)—Case Study of Its Volatile Oils, and Two Triterpenoids," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 8, 2013, pp. 1653-1659. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.48199.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] D. O. Moronkola, A. A. Adedeji, I. O. Oyewole, I. A. Ogunwande and I. A. Oladosu, “Survey and Accounts of Anti-Malaria Ethnomedicinal Herbs Used In South-Western Nigeria and Vector Repellant Activities of Their Volatile Oils,” The African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics [ANDI], 2nd Stakeholders Meeting & Conference, Medical Research Council [MRC], Cape Town, 4-7 October 2009.
[2] D. Cardon and P. C. M. Jarsen, “Philenoptera cyanescens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Roberty,” In: P. C. M. Jarsen and D. Cardon, Eds., PROTA 3: Dyes and Tannins/Colorants et Tannins, PROTA, Wageningen, 2005.
[3] B. D. Schrire, “A Synopsis of the Genus Philenoptera (Leguminosae millettieae) from Africa and Madagascar,” Kew Bulletin, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2000, pp. 81-94. doi:10.2307/4117762
[4] H. M. Burkill, “Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa,” Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Vol. 3, 1985.
[5] F. R. Irvine, “Woody Plants of Ghana, with Special Reference to Their Uses,” Oxford University Press, London, 1961, p. 868.
[6] A. G. Perkin and F. Thomas, “RSC Publishing Paper XC. —Indican, Part II,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions, Vol. 95, 1909, pp. 793-807. doi:10.1039/ct9099500793
[7] D. Cardon, “Le Monde des Teintures Naturelles,” Belin, Paris, 2003, p. 586.
[8] S. Spencer, “Developing an Understanding of Science from the Sierra Leonean Traditional Gara Dyeing Process,” Gender and Science and Technology Association Conference, GASAT 8, Ahmedabad, January 1996.
[9] C. Polakoff, “Into Indigo—African Textiles and Dyeing Techniques,” Anchor Books, Garden City, 1980, p. 243.
[10] J. Jukema, N. Wulijarni-Soetjipto, R. H. Lemmens and J. W. Hildebrand, “Minor Dye and Tannin-Producing Plants,” In: R. H. Lemmens and N. Wulijarni-Soetjipto, Eds., Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 3. Dye and Tannin Producing Plants, Pudoc, Wageningen, 1991, p. 132- 142.
[11] M. M. Iwu and B. N. Anyanwu, “Phytotherapeutic Profile of Nigerian Herbs, 1: Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Arthritic Agents,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1982, pp. 263-274. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(82)90049-6
[12] M. M. Iwu, “Comparative Estimation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Content of L. cyanescens and glycyrrhiza Roots,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, Vol. 71, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1412-1413. doi:10.1002/jps.2600711227
[13] O. N. Ogbeide and M. Parvez, “A Simple Colorimetric Quantification of Flavonoids in the Flowers of L. cyanescens,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1991, pp. 233-239. doi:10.1007/BF02196391
[14] R. Promsattha, R. B. Taylor, M. S. Tempesta and M. M. Iwu, “Chemical Studies on the Nigerian Plant L. cyanescens Benth. Application of Autocorrelated 2D-DQC Spectroscopy to Structure and C-13 Assignments of the Triterpenoid Lupeol,” International Journal of Crude Drug Research, Vol. 25, 1987, pp. 221-224.
[15] K. C. Ndukwe, A. Lamikanra and I. N. Okeke, “Antibacterial Activity in Plants Used as Chewing Sticks in Africa,” Prous Science Drugs of the Future, Vol. 29, No. 12, 2004, p. 1221. doi:10.1358/dof.2004.029.12.853766
[16] Sami Labs Ltd., Glycyrrhetinic Acid, GLABRIDIN, 2003.
[17] S. Ijichi and T. Seizo, “Molecular Design of Sweet Tasting Compounds Based on β-Amino-3β-Deoxy-18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid: Amido Functionality Eliciting Tremendous Sweetness,” Chemistry Letters, Vol. 34, 2005, p. 356. doi:10.1246/cl.2005.356
[18] A. Adewuyi, R. A. Oderinde, B. V. S. K. Rao and R. B. N. Prasad, “Chemical Composition and Molecular Speciation of the Triacylglycerol of the Oils of Lonchocarpus sericeus and Lonchocarpus cyanescens,” Natural Product Research, Vol. 26, No. 20, 2012, pp. 1954-1956. doi:10.1080/14786419.2011.643311
[19] N. Lata and D. Venapani, “Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eichhornia crassipes: The World’s Worst Aquatic Weed,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1240-1242.
[20] D. Joulain and W. A. Koenig, “The Atlas of Spectral Data of Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons,” E-B Verlag, Hamburg, 1998.
[21] R. P. Adams, “Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy,” Allured Pub Corp, Carol Stream, 1995.
[22] Y. Massada, “Analysis of Essential Oils by Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometry,” Wiley & Sons, New York, 1976.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.