Sociodemographic profile and social support for post-stroke depression in Kinshasa: A rehabilitation based cross-sectional study

DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.3318   PDF   HTML     3,968 Downloads   6,833 Views   Citations


The World Health Organization has highlighted the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases, including stroke, in developing countries. As a cause of death, stroke ranks first in Africa. Stroke is the foremost cause of neuropsychiatric disease, including post-stroke depression (PSD) which is a very common disease. Surveys of this condition in Congolese pa tients are virtually non-existent. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of PSD in Congolese patients and identify associated sociodemographic factors. Age, sex, address, province of origin, social and professional status, education, religion and consumption habits were chosen as indicators or parameters of interest to be examined in this study. The results of descriptive analyses are presented as frequencies for categorical variables and as mean ± standard deviation for quantitative variables. The association between different variables was assessed using tables of comparisons of proportions and the Chi-square test. Logistic regression was performed to predict the occurrence of PSD. There were more male than female patients. The mean age was 54.67 ± 12.51 years. Nearly 3 fourths of the patients were aged less than 65. The family was the primary source of social support. The majority was satisfied by the social support received from the family. Just over half the study patients (53.6%) had mild to severe depression as assessed by the PHQ9. Univariate analysis and logistic regression indicated a statistically significant association between low educational level and the occurrence of PSD. However, there was no relationship between age, sex or drinking habits and the onset of PSD. The majority of the subjects were satisfied by the social support from their families. Depression was common after stroke with the occurrence of 53.6%. These results highlight the need to investigate, diagnose and treat PSD, which is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality after stroke.

Share and Cite:

Mpembi, M. , Miezi, S. , Peeters, A. , de Partz, M. , Henrard, S. , Massamba, V. , Nsam, R. , Nzuzi, T. , Macq, J. , Dubois, V. and Constant, E. (2013) Sociodemographic profile and social support for post-stroke depression in Kinshasa: A rehabilitation based cross-sectional study. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 3, 111-117. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.3318.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Heller, R.F., Langhorne, P. and James, E. (2000) Improving the Stroke Outcome: the Benefits of Increasing Availability of Technology. Bull World Health Organ, 78, 1338-1343.
[2] Sagui, E. (2007) Les accidents vasculaires cérébraux en Afrique subsaharienne. Médecine Tropicale, 67, 596-600.
[3] Mckay, J. and Mensa, G.A. (2004) The Atlas of heart disease and stroke. WHO-CDC, Geneva.
[4] Grosjean, M. and Courbin C. (2003) Points essentiels du guideline sur la prise en charge des patients souffrant d’ accident vasculaire cérébral. Louvain Médical, 122, 575-581.
[5] Longo-Mbenza, B., Tonduangu, K., Muyeno, K., Phanzu, M., Kebolo Baku, A., Muvova, D., Lelo, T., Odio, W., Lukoki, L., Bikangi Nkiabungu, F., Kilembe, M., Tshiamala, P., Katalay, L., Mwema, M and Muyembe, T. (2000) Predictors of stroke-associated mortality in Africans. Revue d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, 48, 31-39.
[6] Schmid, A.A., Kroenke, K., Hendrie, H.C., Bakas, T., Sutherland, J.M. and Williams, L.S. (2011) Post-stroke depression and treatment effects on functional outcomes. Neurology, 11, 1000-1005. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318210435e
[7] Lenzi, G.L., Altieri, M. and Maestrini, I. (2008) Post-stroke depression. Revue Neurologique, 164, 837-840. doi:10.1016/j.neurol.2008.07.010
[8] Gabaldón, L., Fuentes, B., Frank-García, A. and Díez-Tejedor, E. (2007) Post-stroke depression: Importance of its Detection and treatment. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 24, 181-188. doi:10.1159/000107394
[9] Carballeira, Y., Dumont, P., Borgacci, S., Rentsch, D., de Tonnac, N., Archinard, M. and Andreoli, A. (2007) Criterion validity of the French version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in a hospital department of internal medicine. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80, 69-77. doi:10.1348/147608306X103641
[10] Sutcliffe, L.M. and Lincoln, N.B. (1998) The assessment of depression in aphasic stroke patients: The development of the stroke aphasic depression questionnaire. Clinical Rehabilitation, 12, 506-513. doi:10.1191/026921598672167702
[11] Thorvaldsen, P., Kuulasma, K., Rajakanga, A.M., Rastenyte, D., Sarti, C. and Wilhelmsen, L. (1997) Stroke trends in WHO MONICA project. Stroke, 28, 5-6. doi:10.1161/01.str.28.3.500
[12] Petrea, R.E., Beiser, A.S., Seshadri, S., Kelly-Hayes, M., Kase, C.S. and Wolf, P.A. (2009) Stroke in women: Gender differences in stroke incidence and post stroke disability in the Framingham Heart Study. Stroke, 40, 1032-1037. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.108.542894
[13] Wyller, T.B. (1999) Stroke and gender. Journal of Gender-Specific Medicine, 2, 41-45.
[14] Modena, M.G., Bonetti, L., Coppi, F., Bursi, F. and Rossi, R. (2002) Prognostic role of reversible endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 40, 505-510. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(02)01976-9
[15] Nguyen, D.H., Paule, P., Pham, N.S., Michel, R., Vu Dien, B. and Fourcade, L. (2007) Etude des facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire associés à l’athérosclérose de l’aorte thoracique dépistée par échocardiographie transoesophagienne au Viêt-Nam. Médecine Tropicale, 67, 573-578.
[16] Roof, R.L. and Hall, E.D. (2000) Gender differences in acute CNS trauma and stroke: Neuroprotective effects of estrogen and progesterone. Journal of Neurotrauma, 17, 367-388. doi:10.1089/neu.2000.17.367
[17] Sibon, I., Lasalle-Lagadec, S., Renou, P. and Swendsen, J. (2012) Evolution of depression symptoms following stroke: A prospective study using computerized ambulatory monitoring. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 33, 280-285. doi:10.1159/000334663
[18] Carota, A. and Paoluci, S. (2007) Depression after stroke. In: Godefroy, O. and Bogousslavsky, J., Eds., The Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology of Stroke, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 548-570. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511544880.030
[19] Camus, V. and Schmitt, L. (2000) Manifestations psychiatriques des affections cérébrovasculaires: Approche clinique et thérapeutique. Encyclopédie MédicoChirurgicale Psychiatrie.
[20] Herrmann, N., Black, S.E., Lawrence, J., Szekely, C. and Szalai, J.P. (1998) The sunnybrook stroke study: A prospective study of depressive symptoms and functional outcome. Stroke, 29, 618-624. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.3.618
[21] Paolucci, S., Antonucci, G., Pratesi, L., Traballesi, M., Grasso, M.G. and Lubich, S. (1999) Post-stroke depression and its role in rehabilitation of inpatients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 985-990. doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90048-5
[22] Eriksson, M., Asplund, K., Glader, E.L., Norrving, B., Stegmayr, B., Terént, A., Asberg, K.H. and Wester, P.O. (2004) Riks-stroke collaboration self-reported depression and use of antidepressant after stroke: A national survey. Stroke, 35, 936-941. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000121643.86762.9a
[23] Oladiji, J.O., Akinbo, S.R.A., Aina, O.F. and Aiyejunsule, C.B. (2009) Risk factor of post-stroke depression among stroke survivors in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 47-51.
[24] Carod-Art, F.J., Coral, F.L., Trizotto, D.F. and Moreira, C.M. (2009) Post-stroke depression: Prevalence and determinants in Brazilian stroke depression. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 28, 157-165. doi:10.1159/000226114
[25] Chatterjee, K., Fall, S. and Barer, D. (2010) Mood after stroke: A case control study of biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic risk factors for major depression in stroke survivors. BMC Neurology, 10, 125. doi:10.1186/1471-2377-10-125
[26] Lincoln, N.B. and Flannaghan, T. (2003) Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy for depression following stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Stroke, 34, 111-115. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000044167.44670.55
[27] Kotila, M., Numminen, H., Waltimo, O. and Kaste, M. (1998) Depression after stroke results of the Finnstroke study. Stroke, 29, 368-372. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.2.368
[28] Owolabi, M.O. (2008) Determinants of health-related quality of life in Nigerian stroke survivors. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 102, 1219-1225. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.05.003
[29] Cossi, M.J., Gobron, C., Preux, P.M., Niama, D., Chabriat, H. and Houinato, D. (2012) Stroke: Prevalence and disability in Cotonou, Benin. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 33, 166-172. doi:10.1159/000334195.
[30] Glamcevski II, M.T., McArthr, L.C., Chong, H.T. and Tan, C.T. (2002) Factors associated with post-stroke depression, a malaysian study. Neurological Journal of South East Asia, 7, 9-12.
[31] Paradiso, S. and Robinson, R.G. (1998) Gender differrences in post-stroke depression. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 10, 41-47.
[32] Ollat, H. (2000) Dépressions vasculaires. Neuropsychiatrie: Tendances et Débats, 10, 19-22.
[33] Ministère de l’enseignement primaire et secondaire (2005) Plan d’action nationale de l’éducation pour tous, Kinshasa.
[34] Salter, K., Bhogal, S., Teasell, R., Foley, N. and Speechley, M. (2011) Post-stroke depression. In: Teasell, R., Foley, N. and Salter, K. Eds., Evidence-Based Review of Stroke Rehabilitation, Module 18, 14th Edition, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, London.
[35] Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, H., Milewska, D., Bochyńska, A., Chelmniak, A., Dworek, N., Kasprzyk, K., Galecka, K., Szczepańska-Szarej, A., Chwojnicki, K., Zyluk, B., Slowik, A. and Ryglewicz, D. (2010) Predictors of depressive symptoms in patients with stroke—A three-month follow-up. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska, 44, 13-20.
[36] Fiske, A., Wetherell, J.L. and Gatz, M. (2009) Depression in older adults, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 363-389.
[37] Jopson, N.M. and Moss-Morris, R. (2003) The role of illness severity and illness representations in adjusting to multi-plesclerosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, 503-511. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00455-5
[38] Central Intelligence Agency (2013) Democratic Republic of Congo.
[39] Giaquinto, S., Spiridigliozzi, C. and Caracciolo, B. (2007) Can faith protect from emotional distress after stroke? Stroke, 38, 993-997. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000257996.26950.59
[40] Sloan, R.P., Bagiella, E. and Powell, T. (1999) Religion, spirituality, and medicine. Lancet, 353, 664-667. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07376-0
[41] Joshi, S., Kumari, S. and Jain, M. (2008) Religious belief and its relation to psychological well-being. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 345-354.
[42] Giaquinto, S., Sarno, S., Dall’Armi, V. and Spiridigliozzi, C. (2010) Religious and spiritual beliefs in stroke rehabilitation, Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 32, 329-334. doi:10.3109/10641960903443566
[43] Brunon, A.R., Bensenor, I.M. and De Toledo Ferraz Alves, T.C. (2011) Therapeutic interventions for vascular depression: A systematic review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 33, 400-409. doi:10.1590/S1516-44462011000400015
[44] Burvill, P., Johnson, G., Jamrozik, K., Anderson, C. and Stew-art-Wynne, E. (1997) Risk factors for post-stroke depresssion. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12, 219-226. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199702)12:2<219::AID-GPS581>3.0.CO;2-E
[45] Kuklina, E.V., Tong, X., George, M.G. and Bansil, P. (2012) Epidemiology and prevention of stroke: A worldwide perspective. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12, 199-208. doi:10.1586/ern.11.99
[46] Pariel-Madjlessi, S., Pouillon, M., Robcis, I., Sebban, C., Frémont, P. and Belmin, J. (2005) La dépression: Une complication méconnue de l’accident vasculaire cérébral chez les sujets agés. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil, 3, 7-16.
[47] Nidhinandana, S., Sithinamsuwan, P., Chinvarun, Y., Wongmek, W., Supakasem, S. and Suwantamee, J. (2010) Prevalence of post-stroke depression in Thai stroke survivors studied in Phramongkutklao Hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 93, S60-S64.
[48] Santos, M., Kovari, E., Gold, G., Bozikas, V.P., Hof, P.R., Bouras, C. and Giannakopoulos, P. (2009) The neuro-anatomical model of post-stroke depression: Towards a change of focus? Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 283, 158-162. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2009.02.334
[49] Morris, P.L., Robinson, R.G., Raphael, B. and Bishop, D. (1991) The relationship between the perception of social support and post-stroke depression in hospitalized patients. Psychiatry, 54, 306-316.
[50] Hilari, K., Northcott, S., Roy, P., Marshall, J., Wiggins, R.D., Chataway, J. and Ames, D. (2010) Psychological distress after stroke and aphasia: The first six months. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24, 181-190. doi:10.1177/0269215509346090
[51] Boden-Albala, B., Litwak, E., Elkind, M.S., Rundek, T. and Sacco, R.L. (2005) Social isolation and outcomes post stroke. Neurology, 64, 1888-1892. doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000163510.79351.AF
[52] Farner, L., Wagle, J., Engedal, K., Flekkoy, K.M., Wyller, T.B. and Fure, B. (2010) Depressive symptoms in stroke patients: A 13 month follow-up study of patients referred to a rehabilitation unit. Journal of Affective Disorders, 127, 211-218. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.05.025

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.