The Effect of High Day and Low Night Temperature on Pollen Production, Pollen Germination and Postharvest Quality of Tomatoes


Temperature integration where high day temperatures are compensated by lower night temperatures is one strategy that can be used to reduce energy consumption in greenhouses. Crop tolerance to temperature variation is a prerequisite for using such a strategy. Greenhouse experiments were conducted on tomatoes cvs, Capricia, Mecano and Cederico in order to investigate the effect of different day/night temperature regimes (24/17, 27/14 and 30/11℃) where the same mean temperature was maintained for the production and germination of pollen. In addition, fruit quality as determined by fruit firmness, dry matter content, soluble solids, titratable acids, and pH was examined at harvest and after seven and 14 days of storage. The 30/11℃ treatment significantly increased pollen production and germination compared to the 24/17℃ treatment, while the 27/14℃ treatment was generally in between the other two treatments. Fruits grown at the 27/14℃ treatment were significantly firmer, while fruits grown at 24/17℃ had higher dry matter content, soluble solids, and titratable acids compared to the other treatments. There were significant differences between cultivars with respect to firmness, dry matter, titratable acidity, and pH. The quality of the fruits changed during storage, but the storability of the tomatoes was not affected by preharvest temperature treatments. The overall conclusion was that the 27/14℃ treatment was superior to the other two temperature treatments with respect to the studied parameters.

Share and Cite:

B. Khanal, A. Suthaparan, A. Hückstädt, A. Wold, L. Mortensen and H. Gislerød, "The Effect of High Day and Low Night Temperature on Pollen Production, Pollen Germination and Postharvest Quality of Tomatoes," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 7A, 2013, pp. 19-25. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.47A1003.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] S. R. Adams, V. M. Valdes, F. A. Langton and P. J. C. Hamer, “Reducing Carbon Emissions from Greenhouse Production through the Use of Temperature Integration and Alternative Sources of Heat,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 893, No. 1, 2011, pp. 95-101.
[2] N. Sigrimis, A. Anastasiou and N. Rerras, “Energy Saving in Greenhouses Using Temperature Integration: A Simulation Survey,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2000, pp. 321-341. doi:10.1016/S0168-1699(00)00083-1
[3] O. Korner, M. J. Bakker and E. Heuvelink, “Daily Temperature Integration: A Simulation Study to Quantify Energy Consumption,” Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 87, No. 3, 2004, pp. 333-343. doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2003.11.003
[4] J. C. Bakker and J. A. M. Van Uffelen, “The Effects of Diurnal Temperature Regimes on Growth and Yield of Glasshouse Sweet Pepper,” The Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 36, 1988, pp. 201-208.
[5] B. J. Bailey, H. Challa, A. A. Risjdijk and J. V. M. Vogelezang, “Computers and Automation—Temperature Integration on a 24-Hour Base: A More Efficient Climate Control Strategy,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 519, No. 1, 2000, pp. 163-169.
[6] R. G. Hurd and C. J. Graves, “The Influence of Different Temperature Patterns Having the Same Integral on the Earliness and Yield of Tomatoes,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 148, 1984, pp. 547-554.
[7] A. Picken, “A Review of Pollination and Fruit Set in the Tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.),” The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, Vol. 59, 1984, pp. 1-13.
[8] S. Sato, M. Kamiyama, T. Iwata, N. Makita, H. Furukawa and H. Ikeda, “Moderate Increase of Mean Daily Temperature Adversely Affects Fruit Set of Lycopersiconesculentum by Disrupting Specific Physiological Processes in Male Reproductive Development,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 97, No. 5, 2006, pp. 731-738. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl037
[9] M. Dorais, A. P. Papadopoulos and A. Gosselin, “Greenhouse Tomato Fruit Quality,” In: J. Janick, Ed., Horticultural Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Oxford, 2010. doi:10.1002/9780470650806.ch5
[10] N. Gruda, “Impact of Environmental Factors on Product Quality of Greenhouse Vegetables for Fresh Consumption,” Critical Review in Plant Science, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2005, pp. 227-247. doi:10.1080/07352680591008628
[11] D. M. Beckles, “Factors Affecting the Postharvest Soluble Solids and Sugar Content of Tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.) Fruit,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 63, No. 1, 2012, pp. 129-140. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2011.05.016
[12] M. A. Rosales, L. M. Cervilla, E. Sanchez-Rodriguez, M. Rubio-Wilhelmi, B. Blasco, J. J. Rios, T. Soriano, N. Castilla, L. Romero and J. M. Ruiz, “The Effect of Environmental Conditions on Nutritional Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruits: Evaluation of Two Experimental Mediterranean Greenhouses,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2011, pp. 152-162. doi:10.1002/jsfa.4166
[13] M. Linke and H. P. Klaring, “Effect of Different Preharvest Conditions on the Postharvest Keeping Quality of Greenhouse Tomatoes,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 654, 2004, pp. 213-219.
[14] A. N. M. De Koning, “Long-Term Temperature Integration of Tomato: Growth and Development under Alternating Temperature Regimes,” Scientia Horticulturae, Vol. 45, No. 1-2, 1990, pp. 117-127. doi:10.1016/0304-4238(90)90074-O
[15] J. L. Brewbakerand B. H. Kwack, “The Essential Role of Calcium Ion in Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Growth,” American Journal of Botany, Vol. 50, No. 9, 1963, pp. 859-865. doi:10.2307/2439772
[16] N. Firon, R. Shaked, M. M. Peet, D. M. Pharr, E. Zamski, K. Rosenfeld, L. Althan and E. Pressman, “Pollen Grains of Heat Tolerant Tomato Cultivars Retain Higher Carbohydrate Concentration under Heat Stress Conditions,” Scientia Horticulturae, Vol. 109, No. 3, 2006, pp. 212-217. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2006.03.007
[17] D. R. Taub, J. R. Seemann and J. S. Coleman, “Growth in Elevated CO2 Protects Photosynthesis against High-Temperature Damage,” Plant, Cell & Environment, Vol. 23, No. 6, 2000, pp. 649-656. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.2000.00574.x
[18] L. M. Mortensen and H. R. Gislerød, “The Effect of High CO2 Concentrations on Diurnal Photosynthesis at High Daytime Temperatures in Small Stands of Cut Roses,” European Journal of Horticultural Sciences, Vol. 77, No. 4, 2012, pp. 163-169.
[19] L. M. Mortensen and H. R. Gislerød, “The Effect of CO2 Concentration on the CO2 Exchange Rate in a Small Stand of Cucumber during Different Periods of the Day,” European Journal of Horticultural Sciences, Vol. 77, No. 1, 2012, pp. 24-30.
[20] R. Besford, L. Ludwig and A. Withers, “The Greenhouse Effect: Acclimation of Tomato Plants Growing in High CO2, Photosynthesis and Ribulose-1, 5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Protein,” Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 41, No. 8, 1990, pp. 925-931. doi:10.1093/jxb/41.8.925
[21] V. S. Meli, S. Ghosh, T. N. Prabha, N. Chakraborty, S. Chakraborty and A. Datta, “Enhancement of Fruit Shelf Life by Suppressing N-Glycan Processing Enzymes,” Proceedings for National Academy of Science, Vol. 107, No. 6, 2010, pp. 2413-2418. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909329107
[22] D. M. Barret, E. Garcia and J. E. Wayne, “Textural Modification of Processing Tomatoes,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1998, pp. 173-258. doi:10.1080/10408699891274192
[23] S. N. Jha and T. Matsuoka, “Determination of Post-Harvest Storage Life of Tomato Fruits,” Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2005, pp. 526-529.
[24] R. Arias, T. C. Lee, L. Logendra and H. Janes, “Correlation of Lycopene Measeured by HPLC with the L*, a*, b* Color Readings of a Hydroponic Tomato and the Relationship of Maturity with Colour and Lycopene Content,” Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2000, pp. 1697-1702. doi:10.1021/jf990974e
[25] S. L. Molyneux, C. E. Lister and G. P. Savage, “An Investigation of the Antioxidant Properties and Colour of Glasshouse Grown Tomatoes,” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Vol. 55, No. 7, 2004, pp. 537-545. doi:10.1080/09637480400015828
[26] P. Riga, M. Anza and C. Garbisu, “Tomato Quality Is More Dependent on Temperature than on Photosynthetically Active Radiation,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 88, No. 1, 2008, pp. 158-166. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3065
[27] A. N. M. De Koning, “The Effect of Temperature on Fruit Growth and Fruit Load of Tomato,” Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 248, 1989, pp. 329-336.
[28] H. Qi, L. Hua, L. Zhao and L. Zhou, “Carbohydrate Metabolism in Tomato (Lycopersicaonesculentum Mill.) Seedlings and Yield and Fruit Quality as Affected by Low Night Temperature and Subsequent Recovery,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 10, No. 30, 2011, pp. 5743-5749.
[29] J. Javanmardi and C. Kubota, “Variation of Lycopene, Antioxidant Activity, Total Soluble Solids and Weight Loss of Tomato during Postharvest Storage,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2006, pp. 151-155. doi:10.1016/j.postharvbio.2006.03.008
[30] H. Auerswald, P. Peters, B. Bruckner, A. Krumbein and R. Kuchenbuch, “Sensory Analysis and Instrumental Measurement of Short-Term Stored Tomatoes (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.),” Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1999, pp. 323-334. doi:10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00094-5

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.