Share This Article:

The Diabetic Foot Research in Arabs’ Countries

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:100KB) PP. 157-165
DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.33023    4,259 Downloads   9,516 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: To review all the studies on diabetic foot disorders (DFDs) that were published on the PubMed? site aiming to identify the contributions of the different Arabs’ countries in the world scientific literature on this topic. Methods: The PubMed? site was searched using different key words for searching all the abstracts on Diabetes mellitus (DM) and DFDs published from Arabs’ League countries (n = 22). For this review, the 22 countries were classified into 3 groups: Group 1 (G1): Gulf Council Countries (GCC) countries (n = 6), Group 2 (G2): African Arabs’ countries (n = 10), Group 3 (G3): Asian and/or Eastern Mediterranean Arabs’ countries (n = 6). All the abstracts on DM coming from all of the 22 Arabs’ countries were initially reviewed to locate the ones related to DFDs’ management. All of the articles related to DFDs were reviewed by the senior author. A publication index was created to allow a comparison between the productivity of various countries and correlate that to the population number. Results: By April 2012, a total of 906 articles were published on DM, out of them 115 (11.6%) were related to DFDs. The largest number of DM/DFDs research came from G1 countries (n = 437/51) followed by G2 (n = 307/38) and finally G3 (n = 162/26). The percentages of the studies related to DFDs were therefore: 11.6%, 12.3% and 20.6% respectively. Saudi Arabia was the top on the list of all studied countries with 31 studies related to DFDs out of the 187 on DM (16.5%). Conclusion: More research on DFDs is needed in most of the Arabs’ countries particularly those in the GCC region which reported very high prevalence rates and are expected to hold these rates for the coming decades. Also, special attention is needed for those low-income Arabs’ countries that had no contributions in DFDs’ research.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

O. Alzahrani, Y. Badahdah, M. Bamakrid, A. Alfayez, M. Alsaeedi, A. Mansouri and H. Alzahrani, "The Diabetic Foot Research in Arabs’ Countries," Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 157-165. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2013.33023.

References

[1] The Central Intelligence Agency, “The World Fact Book,” 2012. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/rankorderguide.html
[2] M., Badran and I. Laher, “Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Arabic-Speaking Countries,” International Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 2012, 2012, Article ID: 902873. doi:10.1155/2012/902873
[3] “International Diabetes Federation, IDF Atlas,” 2013. http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas/5e/the-global-burden
[4] S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree and H. King, “Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the Year 2000 and Projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2004, pp. 1047-1053. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.5.1047
[5] A. M. Al-Wahbi, “The Diabetic Foot in Arab World,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2006, pp. 147-153.
[6] F. A. Qari and D. Akbar, “Diabetic Foot: Presentation and Treatment,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2000, pp. 443-446. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13169-8
[7] W. J. Jeffcoate and K. G. Harding, “Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Lancet, Vol. 3, No. 361, 2003, pp. 1545-1551. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13169-8
[8] H. A. Alzahrani, K. Hitos and J. P. Fletcher, “The Diabetic Foot,” Hemi Australian Pty Ltd., Sydney, 2011.
[9] H. A. Alzahrani, N. M. Ghandourah and H. T. Merdad, “Limb Amputations in Western Saudi Arabia,” Asian Journal of Surgery, Vol. 15, No.1, 1992, pp. 119-122.
[10] H. A. Alzahrani and M. G. Sehlo, “The Impact of Religious Connectedness on Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Journal of Religion and Health, Epub Ahead of Print, 2011.
[11] “The National Library of Medicine,” 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
[12] S. Al Deeb, K. Al Moutaery, M. Arshaduddin, N. Biary and M. Tariq, “Attenuation of Acrylamide-Induced Neurotoxicity in Diabetic Rats,” Neurotoxicol Teratol and Teratology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2000, pp. 247-253.
[13] A. Elsharawy, “Outcome of Midfoot Amputations in Diabetic Gangrene,” Annals of Vascular Surgery, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2011, pp. 778-782. doi:10.1016/j.avsg.2010.11.013
[14] S. Bondokji, M. Rangaswamy, C. Reuter, Y. Farajalla, T. Mole and J. Cockwill, “Clinical Efficacy of a New Variant of a Foam-Based NWPT System,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2011, pp. 62, 64-67.
[15] J. S. Alwakeel, A. Al-Suwaida, A. C. Isnani, A. Al-Harbi and A. Alam, “Concomitant Macro and Microvascular Complications in Diabetic Nephropathy,” Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2009, pp. 402-409.
[16] F. A. Zakareia, “Correlation of Peripheral Arterial Blood Flow with Plasma Chemerin and VEGF in Diabetic Peripheral Vascular Disease,” Biomarkers in Medicine, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012, pp. 81-87. doi:10.2217/bmm.11.85
[17] R. Halawa, A. Karawagh, A. Zeidan, A. E. Mahmoud, M. Sakr and A. Hegazy, “Prevalence of Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy among Patients Suffering from Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2010, pp. 337-343. doi:10.1185/03007990903471940
[18] H. Al-Zahrani, “Role of Vascular Surgery in the Management of Diabetic Foot Problems,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1991, pp. 719-720.
[19] A. T. El-Tahawy, “Bacteriology of Diabetic Foot,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2000, pp. 344-347.
[20] B. A. Bakhotmah and H. A. Alzahrani, “Self-Reported Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Products in Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Disorders by Diabetic Patients in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia,” BMC Research Notes, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010, p. 25. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-254
[21] S. A. Qidwai, M. A. Khan, S. R. Hussain and M. S. Malik, “Diabetic Neuroarthropathy,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001, pp. 142-145.
[22] A. Malone, A. Gannass and F. Bowling, “Flexible and Rigid Casting Tape as a Novel Approach to Offloading Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 20, No. 7, 2011, pp. 335-336, 338-339.
[23] A. A. Darwish, A. Reddy, M. Kamal, A. Yaneza and M. M. Al-Teheawy, “Management of Diabetic Foot Lesions with Limited Use of Antibodies,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1993, pp. 101-103.
[24] R. A. Sulimani, O. O. Famuyiwa and M. O. Mekki, “Pattern of Diabetic Foot Lesions in Saudi Arabia: Experience from King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1991, pp. 47-50.
[25] J. V. Nielsen, “Peripheral Neuropathy, Hypertension, Foot Ulcers and Amputations among Saudi Arabian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 41, No. 1, 1998, pp. 63-69. doi:10.1016/S0168-8227(98)00059-X
[26] A. Abolfotouh, S. A. Alfaifi and A. S. Al-Gannas, “Risk Factors of Diabetic Foot in Central Saudi Arabia,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 7, 2011, pp. 708-713.
[27] U. H. Malabu, K. A. Al-Rubeaan and M. Al-Derewish, “Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis: Usefulness of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Its Diagnosis,” West African Journal of Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2007, pp. 113-116.
[28] H. Al-Doghether, “Improving Foot Examination of Diabetics in Primary Care,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 24, No. 9, 2003, pp. 1029-1030.
[29] M. Malone, A. Gannass and F. Bowling, “A Chronic, Destructive Mycetoma Infection in a Diabetic Foot in Saudi Arabia,” The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2011, pp. 12-15. doi:10.1177/1534734611400258
[30] M. Al-Qattan, “Lower-Limb Reconstruction Utilizing the Reverse Sural Artery Flap-Gastrocnemius Muscle Cuff Technique,” Annals of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2005, pp. 174-178. doi:10.1097/01.sap.0000168888.31085.29
[31] J. S. Al-Wakeel, D. Hammad, A. Al Suwaida, A. H. Mitwalli, N. A. Memon and F. Sulimani, “Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients Referred to Nephrology Clinic,” Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2009, pp. 77-85.
[32] J. A. Al-Tawfiq and J. A. Johndrow, “Presentation and Outcome of Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Saudi Arabian Patients,” Advances in Skin & Wound Care, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2009, pp. 119-121. doi:10.1097/01.ASW.0000305450.33693.f8
[33] F. A. Qari, “Profile of Diabetic Patients with End-stage Renal Failure Requiring Dialysis Treatment at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah,” Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2002, pp. 199-202.
[34] M. M. Moharram and F. M. Farahat, “Quality Improvement of Diabetes Care Using Flow Sheets in Family Health Practice,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2008, pp. 98-101.
[35] H. Akbar, S. A. Mira, T. H. Zawawi and H. M. Malibary, “Subclinical Diabetic Neuropathy: A Common Complication in Saudi Diabetics,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2000, pp. 433-437.
[36] A. Al-Moallem, R. M. Zaidan and N. H. Alkali, “The Sympathetic Skin Response in Diabetic Neuropathy and Its Relationship to Autonomic Symptoms,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2008, pp. 568-572.
[37] M. Al-Qattan, “The ‘Friday Mass’ Burns of the Feet in Saudi Arabia,” Burns, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2000, pp. 102-105. doi:10.1016/S0305-4179(99)00097-2
[38] A. M. Al-Wahbi, “Impact of a Diabetic Foot Care Education Program on Lower Limb Amputation Rate,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, Vol. 6, 2010, pp. 923-934. doi:10.2147/VHRM.S13569
[39] Z. U. Khan, S. Ahmad, E. Mokaddas, R. Chandy, J. Cano and J. Guarro, “Actinomucor elegans var. Kuwaitiensis Isolated from the Wound of a Diabetic Patient,” Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, Vol. 94, No. 3, 2008, pp. 343-352. doi:10.1007/s10482-008-9251-1
[40] K. Shehab, K. F. Al-Jarallah, M. Abraham, O. A. Mojiminiyi, H. Al-Mohamedy and N. A. Abdella, “Back to Basics: Ankle Reflex in the Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,” QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Vol. 105, No. 4, 2012, pp. 315-320. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcr212.
[41] A. Abdulrazak, Z. I. Bitar, A. A. Al-Shamali and L. A. Mobasher, “Bacteriological Study of Diabetic Foot Infections,” Journal of Diabetes and It’s Complications, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2005, pp. 138-141. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2004.06.001
[42] H. A. Al-Khawari, O. M. Al-Saeed, T. H. Jumaa and F. Chishti, “Evaluating Diabetic Foot Infection with Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Kuwait Experience,” Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of The Kuwait University, Health Science Center, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2005, pp. 165-172.
[43] S. K. Asfar, M. al-Arouj, A. al-Nakhi, A. Baraka, T. Juma and M. Johny, “Foot Infections in Diabetics: The Antibiotic Choice,” Canadian Journal of Surgery, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1993, pp. 170-172.
[44] S. Bitar, “Glucocorticoid Dynamics and Impaired Wound Healing in Diabetes Mellitus,” The American Journal of Pathology, Vol. 152, No. 2, 1998, pp. 547-554.
[45] S. Bitar, “Insulin and Glucocorticoid-Dependant Suppression in the IGF-I System in Diabetic Wounds,” Surgery, Vol. 127, No. 6, 2000, pp. 678-695. doi:10.1067/msy.2000.105869
[46] S. M. Lamloum, L. A. Mobasher, A. H. Karar, L. Basiony, T. H. Abdallah, A. I. Al-Saleh and N. A. Al-Shamali, “Relationship between Postoperative Infectious Complications and Glycemic Control for Diabetic Patients in an Orthopedic Hospital in Kuwait,” Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Center, Vol. 18, No. 6, 2008, pp. 447-452. doi:10.1159/000235893
[47] L. Matowe and F. J. Gilbert, “How to Synthesize Evidence for Imaging Guidelines,” Clinical Radiology, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2004, pp. 63-68. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2003.09.002
[48] N. Al-Mutairi, B. I. Eassa and D. A. Al-Rqobah, “Clinical and Mycologic Characteristics of Onychomycosis in Diabetic Patients,” Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2010, pp. 84-91.
[49] J. S. Gondusky, C. J. Gondusky and S. W. Helmers, “Salmonella Osteomyelitis in New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus,” Orthopedics, Vol. 32, No. 9, 2009.
[50] M. M. Bager and I. Loutfi, “Optimal Imaging Positions for 3-Phase Bone Scanning of Patients with Bony Pathology of the Feet,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2010, pp. 69-75. doi:10.2967/jnmt.109.070771
[51] J. M. Al-Hassan, “Diabetic Ulcer Healing Preparations from the Skin of the Arabian Gulf Catfish (Arius bilineartus Val.): A Novel and Effective Treatment,” International Journal of Tissue Reactions, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1990, pp. 121-135.
[52] D. Shehab, K. Al-Jarallah, O. A. Mojiminiyi, H. Al Mohamedy and N. A. Abdella, “Does Vitamin D deficiency Play a Role in Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes?” Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of The British Diabetic Association, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2012, pp. 43-49. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03510.x
[53] A. Al Fadhli, G. Alexander and J. R. Kanjoor, “Versatile Use of Vacuum-Assisted Healing in Fifty Patients,” Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2009, pp. 161-168. doi:10.4103/0970-0358.59273.
[54] S. Bitar and Z. N. Labbad, “Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in Relation to Diabetes-Induced Impairment of Wound Healing,” The Journal of Surgical Research, Vol. 61, No. 1, 1996, pp. 113-119. doi:10.1006/jsre.1996.0090
[55] K. Al Benwan, A. Al Mulla and V. O. Rotimi, “A Study of the Microbiology of Diabetic Foot Infections in a Teaching Hospital in Kuwait,” Journal of Infection and Public Health, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2011.07.004
[56] F. Al-Maskari, M. El-Sadig and J. N. Norman, “The Prevalence of Macrovascular Complications among Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, Vol. 19, 2007, pp. 6-24. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-6-24
[57] F. Al-Maskari and M. El-Sadig, “Prevalence of Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Complications,” BMC Family Practice, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 8-59. doi:10.1186/1471-2296-8-59
[58] F. Al-Mahroos and K. Al-Roomi, “Diabetic Neuropathy, Foot Ulceration, Peripheral Vascular Disease and Potential Risk Factors among Patients with Diabetes in Bahrain: A Nationwide Primary Care Diabetes Clinic-Based Study,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007, pp. 25-31. doi:10.4103/0256-4947.51536
[59] M. A. Ayoub, “Ankle Fractures in Diabetic Neuropathic Arthropathy: Can Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Salvage the Limb,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 90, No. 7, 2008, pp. 906-914. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.90B7.20090
[60] A. A. Morsy and A. Hosny, “A New System for the Assessment of Diabetic Foot Planter Pressure,” Conference proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Francisco, 1-5 September 2004, pp. 1376-1379.
[61] M. A. Elsharawy, M. Naim and S. Greish, “Human CD34+ Stem Cells Promote Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Rats,” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2012, pp. 288-293. doi:10.1093/icvts/ivr068
[62] K. A. El-Gafary, K. M. Mostafa and W. Y. Al-Adly, “The Management of Charcot Joint Disease Affecting the Ankle and Foot by Arthrodesis Controlled by an Ilizarov Frame: Early Results,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 91, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1322-1325. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.91B10.22431
[63] T. I. Tantawi, K. A. Williams and M. H. Villet, “An Accidental but Safe and Effective Use of Lucilia Cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Maggot Debridement Therapy in Alexandria, Egypt,” Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2010, pp. 491-494. doi:10.1603/ME09183
[64] E. N. Hokkam, “Assessment of Risk Factors in Diabetic Foot Ulceration and Their Impact on the Outcome of the Disease,” Primary Care Diabetes, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2009, pp. 219-224. doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2009.08.009
[65] N. A. El Boghdady and G. A. Badr, “Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Markers and Vascular Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy,” Cell Bioche-mistry and Function, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2012, pp. 328-334. doi:10.1002/cbf.2808
[66] G. M. Saied, R. M. Kamel, A. M. Labib, M. T. Said and A. Z. Mohamed, “The Diabetic Foot and Leg: Combined He-Ne and Infrared Low-Intensity Lasers Improve Skin Blood Perfusion and Prevent Potential Complications, a Prospective Study on 30 Egyptian Patients,” Lasers in Medical Science, Vol. 26, No. 5, 2011, pp. 627-632. doi:10.1007/s10103-011-0911-4
[67] H. O. El-Mesallamy, N. M. Hamdy, O. A. Ezzat and A. M. Reda, “Levels of Soluble Advanced Glycation End Product-Receptors and Other Soluble Serum Markers as Indicators of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Foot,” Journal of Investigative Medicine, Vol. 59, No. 8, 2011, pp. 1233-1238.
[68] A. H. Yousry and A. M. Abdalhady, “Management of Diabetic Neuropathic Ankle Arthropathy by Arthrodesis Using an Ilizarov Frame,” Acta orthopedica Belgica, Vol. 76, No. 6, 2010, pp. 821-826.
[69] H. Saad Setta, A. Elshahat, K. Elsherbiny, K. Massoud and I. Safe, “Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Platelet-Poor Plasma in the Management of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Comparative Study,” International Wound Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2011, pp. 307-312.
[70] M. Elsharawy and E. Elzayat, “A Fast Arterial Duplex Ultrasound Performed by Vascular Surgeons,” International Angiology, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2002, pp. 372-378.
[71] M. R. Nahas, H. M. Gawish, M. M. Tarshoby, O. I. State and A. Aboelyazid, “Effect of Simulated Leg Length Discrepancy on Plantar Pressure Distribution in Diabetic Patients with Neuropathic Foot Ulceration,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 20, No. 10, 2011, pp. 473-477.
[72] A. M. Moghazy, M. E. Shams, O. A. Adly, A. H. Abbas, M. A. El-Badawy, D. M. Elsakka, S. A. Hassan, W. S. Abdelmohsen, O. S. Ali and B. A. Mohamed, “The Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Bee Honey Dressing in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 89, No. 3, 2010, pp. 276-281. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.05.021
[73] M. Abdelatif, M. Yakoot and M. Etmaan, “Safety and Efficacy of a New Honey Ointment on Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2008, pp. 108-110.
[74] M. El-Shazly, M. Abdel-Fattah, N. Scorpiglione, M. M. Benedetti, F. Capani, F. Carinci, Q. Carta, D. Cavaliere, E. M. De Feo, C. Taboga, G. Tognoni and A. Nicolucci, “Risk Factors for Lower Limb Complications in Diabetic Patients,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1998, pp. 10-17. doi:10.1016/S1056-8727(97)00001-9
[75] T. I. Tantawi, Y. M. Gohar, M. M. Kotb, F. M. Beshara and M. M. El-Naggar, “Clinical and Microbiological Efficacy of MDT in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 16, No. 9, 2007, pp. 379-383.
[76] M. A. El-Darouti, S. Hussein, S. R. Al-Tahlawy, M. Al-Fangary, H. M. Mashaly, E. El-Nabarawy, A. Al-Tawdy, M. Fawzi and R. M. Abdel-Hay, “Clinical Study of Nail Changes in Leprosy and Comparison with Nail Changes in Diabetic Patients,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2011, pp. 290-295.
[77] N. S. Omar, M. R. El-Nahas and J. Gray, “Novel Antibiotics for the Management of Diabetic Foot Infections,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Vol. 31, No. 5, 2008, pp. 411-419.
[78] R. A. Bishara, W. Taha, I. Akladious and M. A. Allam, “Ankle Peak Systolic Velocity: New Parameter to Predict Nonhealing in Diabetic Foot Lesions,” Vascular, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2009, pp. 264-268. doi:10.2310/6670.2009.00032
[79] A. Mousa, M. Abdel-Hamid, A. Ewida, M. Saad and A. Sahrabi, “Combined Percutaneous Endovascular Iliac Angioplasty and Infrainguinal Surgical Revascularization for Chronic Lower Extremity Ischemia: Preliminary Result,” Vascular, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2010, pp. 71-76. doi:10.2310/6670.2010.00007
[80] M. El-Nahas, H. Gawish, M. Tarshoby and O. State, “The Impact of Topical Phenytoin on Recalcitrant Neuropathic Diabetic Foot Ulceration,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2009, pp. 33-37.
[81] A. R. El-Ganainy and A. Elgeidi, “Treatment of Distal Femoral Fractures in Elderly Diabetic Patients Using Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plating Osteosynthesis (MIPPO),” Acta orthopedica Belgica, Vol. 76, No. 4, 2010, pp. 503-506.
[82] M. A. Abu-Youssef, R. Dey, Y. Gohar, A. A. Massoud, L. Ohrstrom and V. Langer, “Synthesis and Structure of Silver Complexes with Nicotinate-Type Ligands Having Antibacterial Activities against Clinically Isolated Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens,” Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 46, No. 15, 2007, pp. 5893-5903. doi:10.1021/ic0621594
[83] H. E. Bakheit, M. F. Mohamed, S. E. Mahadi, A. B. Widatalla, M. A. Shawer, A. H. Khamis and M. E. Ahmed, “Diabetic Heel Ulcer in the Sudan: Determinants of Outcome,” The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2012, pp. 152-155.
[84] K. M. Adam, S. M. Mahmoud, S. I. Mahadi, A. H. Widatalla, M. A. Shawer and M. E. Ahmed, “Extended Leg Infection of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Risk Factors and Outcome,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 20, No. 9, 2011, pp. 440-444.
[85] M. ElMakki Ahmed, A. O. Tamimi, S. I. Mahadi, A. H. Widatalla and M. A. Shawer, “Hallux Ulceration in Diabetic Patients,” The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2010, pp. 2-7. doi:10.1053/j.jfas.2009.07.005
[86] S. M. Mahmoud, A. A. Mohamed, S. E. Mahdi and M. E. Ahmed, “Split-Skin Graft in the Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 17, No. 7, 2008, pp. 303-306.
[87] M. E. Ahmed, “Diabetic Septic Foot Lesions in Khartoum,” East African Medical Journal, Vol. 63, No. 3, 1986, pp. 187-190.
[88] I. A. Mohamed, A. R. Ahmed and M. E. Ahmed, “Amputation and Prostheses in Khartoum,” Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1997, pp. 248-251.
[89] A. H. Widatalla, S. E. Mahadi, M. A. Shawer, H. A. Elsayem and M. E. Ahmed, “Implementation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Classification System for Research Purposes to Predict Lower Extremity Amputation,” International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1-5. doi:10.4103/0973-3930.50707
[90] F. Z. Lamchahab, N. El Kihal, I. Khoudri, A. Chraibi, B. Hassam and M. Ait Ourhroui, “Factors Influencing the Awareness of Diabetic Foot Risks,” Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2011, pp. 359-365. doi:10.1016/j.rehab.2011.07.004
[91] A. Diouri, Z. Slaoui, A. Chadli, H. El Ghomari, M. Kebbou, F. Marouan, A. Farouqi and M. R. Ababou, “[Incidence of Factors Favoring Recurrent Foot Ulcers in Diabetic Patients],” Ann Endocrinol (Paris), Vol. 63, No. 6, 2002, pp. 491-496.
[92] S. Bosseri and G. Gill, “Hand and Foot Sepsis in Libyan Diabetic Patients,” Tropical Doctor, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1997, pp. 232-233.
[93] F. T. Lester, “Hand and Foot Sepsis in Libyan Diabetic Patients,” Tropical Doctor, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1997, p. 195.
[94] A. Benotmane, K. Faraoun, F. Mohammedi, M. E. Amani and T. Benkhelifa, “Treatment of Diabetic Foot Lesions in Hospital: Results of 2 Successive Five-Year Periods, 1989-1993 and 1994-1998,” Diabetes & Metabolism, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2004, pp. 245-250. doi:10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70115-5
[95] A. Benotmane, F. Mohammedi, F. Ayad, K. Kadi, S. Medjbeur and A. Azzouz, “Management of Diabetic Foot Lesions in Hospital: Costs and Benefits,” Diabetes & Metabolism, Vol. 27, No. 6, 2001, pp. 688-694.
[96] A. Benotmane, F. Mohammedi, F. Ayad, K. Kadi and A. Azzouz, “Diabetic Foot Lesions: Etiologic and Prognostic Factors,” Diabetes & Metabolism, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2000, pp. 113-117.
[97] T. Darst , T. D. Weaver and B. Zangwill, “Charcot’s Joint Following Keller Arthroplasty. A Case Report,” Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association, Vol. 88, No. 3, 1998, pp. 140-143.
[98] R. S. Moucharafieh, S. Saghieh, G. Macari and B. Atiyeh, “Diabetic Foot Salvage with Microsurgical Free-Tissue Transfer,” Microsurgery, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2003, pp. 257-261. doi:10.1002/micr.10118
[99] J. Sanders, J. M. Robbins and M. E. Edmonds, “History of the Team Approach to Amputation Prevention: Pioneers and Milestones,” Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association, Vol. 100, No. 5, 2010, pp. 317-334.
[100] L. J. Sanders, J. M. Robbins and M. E. Edmonds, “History of the Team Approach to Amputation Prevention: Pioneers and Milestones,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2010, pp. 3S-16S. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2010.06.002
[101] B. S. Atiyeh, R. E. Sfeir, M. M. Hussein and T. Husami, “Preliminary Arteriovenous Fistula for Free-Flap Reconstruction in the Diabetic Foot,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 95, No. 6, 1995, pp. 1062-1069. doi:10.1097/00006534-199505000-00017
[102] A. O. Miller and M. Henry, “Update in Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Infections,” Physical Medical Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2009, pp. 611-625. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2009.06.007.
[103] R. Kreidy and E. Hajjar, “Digital Pulse Volume Recording: An Essential Test for the Assessment of Arteritis in Diabetic Patients,” Journal of Medical Libanese, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1997, pp. 73-77.
[104] Y. Y. Cheung, M. Doyley, T. B. Miller, F. Kennedy, F. J. Lynch, J. S. Wrobel, K. Paulson and J. Weaver, “Magnetic Resonance Elastography of the Plantar Fat Pads: Preliminary Study in Diabetic Patients and Asymptomatic Volunteers,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2006, pp. 321-326. doi:10.1097/00004728-200603000-00031
[105] A. Beydoun, A. Shaibani, M. Hopwood and Y. Wan, “Oxcarbazepine in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Results of a Dose-Ranging Study,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Vol. 113, No. 6, 2006, pp. 395-404. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2006.00631.x
[106] J. Sanders, “Diabetes Mellitus. Prevention of Amputation,” Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association, Vol. 84, No. 7, 1994, pp. 322-328.
[107] R. Musharafieh, B. Atiyeh, G. Macari and R. Haidar, “Radial Forearm Fasciocutaneous Free-Tissue Transfer in Ankle and Foot Reconstruction: Review of 17 Cases,” Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2001, pp. 147-150. doi:10.1055/s-2001-14344
[108] R. Musharafieh, G. Macari, S. Hayek, B. Elhassan and B. Atiyeh, “Rectus Abdominis Free-Tissue Transfer in Lower Extremity Reconstruction: Review of 40 Cases,” Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2000, pp. 341-345. doi:10.1055/s-2000-7343
[109] L. J. Sanders, “The Charcot Foot: Historical Perspective 1827-2003,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Review, Vol. 20, Suppl. 1, 2004, pp. S4-S8.
[110] N. A. Younes and A. T. Ahmad, “Diabetic Foot Disease,” Endocrine Practice, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2006, pp. 583-592. doi:10.4158/EP.12.5.583
[111] N. A. Younes and F. G. Bakri, “Diabetic Foot Infection,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, pp. 596-603.
[112] N. A. Younes, A. M. Albsoul and H. Awad, “Diabetic Heel Ulcers: A Major Risk Factor for Lower Extremity Amputation,” Ostomy Wound Management, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2004, pp. 50-60.
[113] A. D. Al-Ebous, B. Hiasat, M. Sarayrah, M. Al-Jahmi and A. N. Al-Zuriqat, “Management of Diabetic Foot in a Jordanian Hospital,” East Mediterranean Health Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2005, pp. 490-493.
[114] E. Fowler, N. Vesely, M. Pelfrey, S. Jordan and T. Amberry, “Managing Diabetic Foot Ulcers,” Home Healthcare Nurse, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1999, pp. 357-364. doi:10.1097/00004045-199906000-00005
[115] A. S. Jbour, N. S. Jarrah, A. M. Radaideh, N. S. Shegem, I. M. Bader, A. M. Batieha and K. M. Ajlouni, “Prevalence and Predictors of Diabetic Foot Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jordan,” Saudi Medical Journal, Vol. 24, No. 7, 2003, pp. 761-764.
[116] M. R. Khammash and K. A. Obeidat, “Prevalence of Ischemia in Diabetic Foot Infection,” World Journal of Surgery, Vol. 27, No. 7, 2003, pp. 797-799. doi:10.1007/s00268-003-6889-8
[117] J. M. Elrefai, “Prevalence of Neuropathy in the Diabetic Foot,” Neurosciences (Riyadh), Vol. 14, No. 2, 2009, pp. 163-166.
[118] E. Fowler, N. Vesely, M. Pelfrey, S. Jordan and T. Amberry, “Wound Care for Persons with Diabetes,” Home Healthcare Nurse, Vol. 17, No. 7, 1999, pp. 437-444. doi:10.1097/00004045-199907000-00008
[119] A. A. Mansour and S. G. Dahyak, “Are Foot Abnormalities More Common in Adults with Diabetes? A Cross-Sectional Study in Basra, Iraq,” The Permanente Journal, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2008, pp. 25-30.
[120] A. I. Khoshnaw, “The Diabetic Foot in Iraq,” Lancet, Vol. 366, No. 9498, 2005, p. 1718. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67697-0
[121] A. A. Mansour and H. J. Imran, “Foot Abnormalities in Diabetics: Prevalence & Predictors In Basrah, Iraq,” Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2006, pp. 229-233.
[122] A. A. Mansour and M. A. Jabber, “Diabetic Foot: Correlation between Clinical Abnormalities and Electrophysiological Studies,” Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2007, pp. 13-16.
[123] “The United Nations,” 2011. http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=A/RES/61/

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.