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Effect of Biological Activity on Broadband Passive Fathometry

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DOI: 10.4236/oja.2013.32A005    2,955 Downloads   5,067 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

A passive fathometer can be formed by two vertically separated hydrophones. The depth can be estimated from the Green’s function between the hydrophones, which is calculated from the cross-correlation between ocean ambient noise fields received at those two hydrophones. The performance of the fathometer depends on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the resolution of the noise cross-correlation function. In a given environment, improved SNR and resolution of the cross-correlation function can be achieved through longer observations, more observation points, or increasing bandwidth. Long time averaging has been demonstrated, but requires that the channel be stationary over the averaging time. Hydrophone arrays are commonly used, but result in increased cost and complexity. Recent work shows that the SNR and resolution of the correlation function can also be improved by the use of the large bandwidth noise fields. This paper shows that the non-surface biological noise generated by marine animals, such as shrimp, is one of the major issues in the performance of such a broadband passive fathometer operating in shallow water. This noise tends to occur at higher frequencies. Frequencies at which significant non-surface biological noise is present cannot be used to improve fathometer performance. Consequently, the upper limit of frequencies that can be used in a passive fathometer is limited by the lower limit of the bandwidth occupied by the biological noise.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Alam, E. Huntington and M. Frater, "Effect of Biological Activity on Broadband Passive Fathometry," Open Journal of Acoustics, Vol. 3 No. 2A, 2013, pp. 39-49. doi: 10.4236/oja.2013.32A005.

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