Influence of Management on the Water Quality and Sediment in Tropical Fish Farm

DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.55049   PDF   HTML     5,633 Downloads   8,155 Views   Citations


A seven-month research evaluated the management effect on the water quality and sediment of seven fish ponds. Water and sediment were collected at nine sample sites: seven in the fish ponds; one in inlet water and another in the fish farm’s effluent. The soil samples were analyzed for macro- and micro-nutrients and the water samples were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters. Management and local climate conditions affected nutrient seasonality in the sediment and featured high concentrations of Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, C, Na, Zn and OM at the effluent with low pH, ranging between 4.4 and 6.5. Sudden decrease of DO (less than 3 mg/L) during the rainy season, with a 180 mmrainfall, and a TSS increase (approximately 10 mg/L) were reported. Use of organic manure in fish pond V6 caused higher rates of ammonia (over 1 mg/L). Due to the sediment’s acid pH (less than 4.8) and Al at 0.92 mg/L at the effluent, great care was required in the fish farm. Maintenance and procedures management in the fish farm under analysis should be given more attention since high levels of Al, Fe and acid pH and low levels of potassium and phosphorus in the sediment may produce unfavorable conditions in the water column, and may ultimately have an impact on fish.

Share and Cite:

L. Sipaúba-Tavares, R. Millan and A. Amaral, "Influence of Management on the Water Quality and Sediment in Tropical Fish Farm," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 5, 2013, pp. 495-501. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.55049.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Y. Avnimelech, “Activated Suspension Ponds: A New Concept in Water Treatment,” Hatchery Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000, pp. 24-30.
[2] M. M. Rahman, Q. Jo, Y. G. Gong, S. A. Miller and M. Y. Hossain, “A Comparative Study of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and Calbasu (Labeo calbasu Hamilton) on Bottom Soil Re-Suspension, Water Quality, Nutrient Accumulations, Food Intake and Growth of Fish in Simulated Rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton) Ponds,” Aquaculture, Vol. 285, No. 1-4, 2008, pp. 78-83. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.08.002
[3] A. G. M. Osman and W. Kloas, “Water Quality and Heavy Metal Monitoring in Water, Sediments, and Tissues of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from the River Nile, Egypt,” Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2010, pp. 389-400. doi:10.4236/jep.2010.14045
[4] Y. Avnimelech and G. Ritvo, “Shrimp and Fish Pond Soils: Processes and Management,” Aquaculture, Vol. 220, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 549-567. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00641-5
[5] G. N Chattopadhyay, R. Mukherjee and A. Banerjee, “Phosphorus Management for Fish Ponds Located in Red and Lateritic Soil Zones,” Better Crops International, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2003, pp. 18-21.
[6] B. Hari, B. Madhusoodana-Kurup, J. T. Varghese, J. W. Schrama and M. C. J. Verdegem, “The Effect of Carbohydrate Addition on Water Quality and the Nitrogen Budget in Extensive Shrimp Culture Systems,” Aquaculture, Vol. 252, No. 2-4, 2006, pp. 248-263. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.06.044
[7] C. E. Boyd and C. S. Tucker, “Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1998. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5407-3
[8] K. Silapajarn, C. E. Boyd and O. Silapajarn, “Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Pond Water and Bottom Soil in Channel Catfish Ponds in West-Central Alabama,” Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Alabama, 2004.
[9] F. Koroleff, “Determination of Nutrients,” In: E. Grashof, and E. Kremling, Eds. Methods of Seawater Analysis, Verlag Chemie Wenhein, New York, 1976.
[10] H. L. Golterman, R. S. Clymo and M. A. M. Ohnstad, “Methods for Physical and Chemical Analysis of Freshwater,” Blackwell Scientific Publication, London, 1978.
[11] E. A. Nusch, “Comparison of Different Methods for Chlorophyll and Phaeopigments Determination,” Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Vol. 14, 1980, pp. 4-36.
[12] C. E. Boyd and C. S. Tucker, “Water Quality and Pond Soil Analyses for Aquaculture,” Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, Alabama, 1992.
[13] F. C. Silva, “Handbook of soils, Plants and Fertilizers Analysis,” Embrapa Communications and Information to Transference, Brasília, 1999.
[14] P. Legendre and L. Legendre, “Numerical Ecology,” Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1998.
[15] J. H. Bhadha and J. W. Jawitz, “Characterizing Deep Soils from an Impacted Subtropical Isolated Wetland: Implications for Phosphorus Storage,” Journal of Soils and Sediments, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2010, pp. 514-525. doi:10.1007/s11368-009-0151-4
[16] C. E. Boyd, C. W. Wood and T. Thunjai, “Aquaculture Pond Bottom Soil Quality Management,” Pond Dynamoics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program, Oregon State University, Cowallis, 2002.
[17] Q. Wang and Y. Li, “Phosphorus Adsorption and Desorption Behavior on Sediments of Different Origins,” Journal of Soils and Sediments, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1159-1173. doi:10.1007/s11368-010-0211-9
[18] S. Fivelstad, R. Waagbo, S. F. Aeitz, A. C. D. Hosfeld, A. B. Olsen and S. Stefansson, “A Major Water Quality Problem in Smolt Farms: Combined Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Reduced pH and Aluminum on Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Smolts: Physiology and Growth,” Aquaculture, Vol. 215, No. 1, 2003, pp. 339-357. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00197-7
[19] G. C. Sigua, J. Griffin, W. J. Kang and S. W. Coleman, “Wetland Conversion to Beef Cattle Pasture: Changes in Soil Properties,” Journal of Soils and Sediments, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2004, pp. 4-10. doi:10.1007/BF02990822
[20] D. Mc Intosh, “The Tragedy of the Commons: Perspectives of Sustainable Aquaculture,” World Aquaculture Magazine, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2002, pp. 21-22.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.