The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Paragraph Writing of Iranian EFL Learners
Mansoor Fahim, Somaye Khojaste Rad
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31004   PDF    HTML     7,934 Downloads   15,460 Views   Citations


The present study is an attempt to understand the relationship between self-esteem and paragraph writing of Iranian EFL learners. The study was conducted on both Iranian male and female senior EFL learners studying at Tonekabon and Lahijan Azad Universities. To start the project, first of all, the researcher ran the TOEFL test among 80 students. Then, the Self-esteem Coopersmith inventory was given to the same subjects, after that the researcher asked them to write three different kinds of paragraphs in three forms namely; descriptive, comparison/contrast and cause/effect. However, the last two stages were administered in one session by one week interval. Needless to say, the researcher was available in the class in order to eliminate probable misunderstanding while the subjects were completing all three above-mentioned stages. Finally, in order to come up with the result, the correlation related to the four questions was mea- sured by Pearson-product moment formula, thus, the results of the calculation of correlation coefficient showed a correlation between variables of each question. Based on the above-mentioned results the null hypotheses of this study were all rejected. Meanwhile, the consistency of the raters was calculated by α- Chronbach index showing a high reliability among all raters.

Share and Cite:

Fahim, M. & Rad, S. (2012). The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Paragraph Writing of Iranian EFL Learners. Psychology, 3, 24-29. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.31004.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


[1] Applebee, A. N. (1984). Writing and reasoning. Review of Educational Research, 54, 577-496.
[2] Hassan, B. A. (1999). The relationship of writing apprehension and self-esteem to the writing quality and quantity of EFL university students. Mansoura Faculty of Education Journal, 39, 1-36.
[3] Boughey, C. (1997). Learning to write by writing to learn: A group- work approach. ELT Journal, 51, 126-134. doi:10.1093/elt/51.2.126
[4] Burns, R. B. (1979). The self-concept: Theory, measurement, development and behavior. London and New York: Longman.
[5] Celce-Murcia, M., & Mcintosh, L. (1979). Teaching English as a se- cond or foreign language (pp. 302-307). New York: Ewburrry House.
[6] Chastain, K. (1971). The development of modern language skills: Theory tpractice. Philadelphia, Penn.: Curriculum Development Center.
[7] Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
[8] Chimombo, M. (1986). Evaluating compositions with large classes. ELT Journal, 40, 20-26. doi:10.1093/elt/40.1.20
[9] Croft, K. (1972). Reading on English as a second language. Cambridge, Mass.: Winthrop.
[10] Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
[11] Coopersmith, S. (1981). Self-esteem Inventories. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.
[12] Crowhurst, M. (1983). Syntactic complexity and writing quality: A review. Canadian Journal of Education, 8, 1-16. doi:10.2307/1494403
[13] Finocchiaro, M. (1967). Secondary school composition: Problems and practices. TESOL Quarterly, 1, 40-46. doi:10.2307/3586198
[14] Grodnick, J. R. (1996). Self-esteem and writing achievement. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED 395 311.
[15] Hayati, A. M., & Ostadian, M. (2008). The relationship between self- esteem and listening comprehension of EFL students. Published Research, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
[16] Heaton, J. B. (1988). Writing English language tests. London: Longman.
[17] Howgate, L. (1982). Building self-esteem through the writing process. Writing teachers at work. Berkeley, CA: National Writing Project Publications Department.
[18] James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. Cambridge, MA: Har- vard University Press.
[19] Kobal, D., & Musek, J. (2002). Self-concept and academic achievement: Slovina and France. Retrieved January 21, 2003 from
[20] Memering, D., & O’Hare, F. (1984). The writer’s work: Guide to effective composition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[21] Raimes, A. (1983a). Anguish as a Second Language? Remedies for Composition Teachers In En J. Pringle, I. Yalden and Y. A. Freedman (Eds.), Learning to Write: First Language, Second Language (pp. 252-272), New York: Longman.
[22] Raimes, A. (1983b). Techniques in teaching writing. Teaching English as a second language. New York: Oxford University Press.
[23] Raimes, A. (1985). What unskilled writers do as they write: a classroom study of composing’. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 229a-258a. doi:10.2307/3586828
[24] Silva, T. (1993). Toward an understanding of the distant nature of L2 writing:The ESL research and its implications. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 657-677. doi:10.2307/3587400
[25] Slager, W. (1972). Classroom techniques for controlling composition. In Croft (Ed.). Reading on English as A Second Language (pp. 232- 234). Mass.: Winthrop Publishers.
[26] Winter, D. G.(1996). Personality analysis and interpretation of lives. University of Michigan: Plenum.

Copyright © 2023 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.