Neonatal Determinants of Inadequate Breastfeeding: A Survey among a Group of Neonate Infants in Yaoundé, Cameroon


Exclusive breastfeeding is essential for the newborn’s development. According to the WHO, breastfeeding after childbirth should be initiated within the first 30 minutes to an hour following delivery. Early and adequate breastfeeding practices contribute to the reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality, but are oftentimes not respected. The objective of this survey was to determine neonatal factors associated with breastfeeding initiation and its adequate practice. We carried out a cross-sectional study at the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital from December 2018 to May 2019. All livebirth infants weighing > 2000 g were included. A total of 250 neonate infants were enrolled. Newborns had satisfactory adaptation to extra-uterine life in 240 cases (96%), and vaginal route was the main mode of delivery in 172 women (70%). The newborns had a mean gestational age (GA) of 38.4 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 3168.6 ± 508.7 g. The male sex predominated by a ratio of 1.29. The average time of breastfeeding initiation was 120 minutes. Only 100 (40%) newborns were put to the breast within the first hour after birth and up to 153 (61.2%) mothers practiced inadequate breastfeeding. Among factors associated with inadequate breastfeeding practices, neonatal determinants were neonates delivered through caesarean section, gestational age (GA) < 37 weeks, low birth weight (LBW) < 2500 g and neonatal infection. Therefore, a number of neonatal factors may disrupt breastfeeding in newly delivered women. These may be prevented by reducing the rate of caesarean and premature deliveries through efficient antenatal follow-up, the prevention of risk factors to neonatal sepsis during the perinatal period.

Share and Cite:

Hermann, N. and Moyo, G. (2020) Neonatal Determinants of Inadequate Breastfeeding: A Survey among a Group of Neonate Infants in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Open Access Library Journal, 7, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1106541.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


[1] WHO (2020) Breastfeeding.
[2] Hess, C., Ofei, A. and Mincher, A. (2015) Breastfeeding and Childhood Obesity among African Americans: A Systematic Review. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 40, 313-319.
[3] Khan, J., Vesel, L., Bahl, R. and Martines, J. (2015) Timing of Breastfeeding Initiation and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding during the First Month of Life: Effects on Neonatal Mortality and Morbidity—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19, 468-479.
[4] Black, R., Victora, C., Walker, S., Bhutta, Z., Christian, P., de, Onis, M., et al. (2013) Maternal and Child Undernutrition and Overweight in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries. The Lancet, 382, 427-451.
[5] Quyen Thi-Tu, B., Hwa-Young, L., Thi-Kim, L., DoVan, D. and Lan ThiHoang, V. (2016) Trends and Determinants for Early Initiation of and Exclusive Breastfeeding under Six Months in Vietnam: Results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011. Global Health Action, 9, Article 29433.
[6] MaJra, J. and ViJay, K. (2016) Barriers to Early Initiation and Continuation of Breastfeeding in a Tertiary Care Institute of Haryana: A Qualitative Study in Nursing Care Providers. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 10, 16-20.
[7] Setegn, T., Gerbaba, M. and Belachew, T. (2011) Determinants of Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding among Mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study. BMC Public Health, 11, Article No. 217.
[8] Kimani-Murage, E., Kyobutungi, C., Ezeh, A., Wekesah, F., Wanjohi, M., Muriuki, P., et al. (2013) Effectiveness of Personalized, Home-Based Nutritional Counselling on Infant Feeding Practices, Morbidity and Nutritional Outcomes among Infants in Infants in Nairobi Slums: Study Protocol for a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial. Trials, 14, 445.
[9] Adugna, D. (2014) Women’s Perception and Risk Factors for Delayed Initiation of Breastfeeding in Arba Minch Zuria, Southern Ethiopia. International Breastfeeding Journal, 9, 8.
[10] Institut National de la Statistique (INS), et ICF (2019) Enquête Démographique et de Santé du Cameroun 2018. Indicateurs Clés. INS et ICF, Yaoundé, Rockville, Report No. 5.
[11] Federal Ministry of Health (2010) Health Sector Development Program IV Woreda Based Annual Core Plan. Australia. Report No. 2.
[12] Bimerew, A., Teshome, M. and Kassa, G. (2016) Prevalence of Timely Breastfeeding Initiation and Associated Factors in Dembecha District, North West Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Breastfeeding Journal, 11, 28.
[13] Wolde, T., Birhanu, T. and Ejeta I. (2014) Prevalence and Determinants of Timely Initiation of Breastfeeding among Lactating Mothers of Urban Dwellers in Western Ethiopia. Food Science and Quality Management, 31, 2225-2557.
[14] McLachlan, H. and Forster, D. (2016) Initial Breastfeeding Attitudes and Practices of Women Born in Turkey, Vietnam and Australia after Giving Birth in Australia. International Breastfeeding Journal, 1, 7.
[15] Amin, T., Hablasa, H. and Qader, A. (2010) Determinants of Initiation and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. International Nursing Review, 6, 59-68.
[16] Kuyper, E., Vitta, B. and Dewey, K. (2014) Implications of Cesarean Delivery for Breastfeeding Outcomes and Strategies to Support Breastfeeding. A&T Technical Brief, No. 8, 1-9.
[17] Constance, A., Gewa, M., Monica, O. and Lauren, S. (2011) Determinants of Early Child-Feeding Practices among HIV-Infected and Non Infected Mothers in Rural Kenya. Journal of Human Lactation, 27, 239-249.
[18] Odent, M. (2005) Césariennes:questions, effets, enjeux. Alerte face à la banalisation. Le Souffle d’Or. Elsevier Masson, Barret-sur-Méouge, 200 p.
[19] Beilin, Y., Bodian, C., Weiser, J., Hossain, S., Arnold, I. and Feierman, D. (2005) Effect of Labor Epidural Analgesia with and without Fentanyl on Infant Breast-Feeding: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study. Anesthesiology, 103, 1211-1217.
[20] Baumgarder, D., Muehl, P., Fischer, M. and Pribbenow, B. (2003) Effect of Labor Epidural Anesthesia on Breast-Feeding of Healthy Full-Term Newborns Delivered Vaginally. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 16, 7-13.
[21] Moyo, G.P.K. and Tetsiguia, J.R.M. (2020) Discussing the “First Cry” as an Initial Assessment for Neonates. American Journal of Pediatrics, 6, 129-132.
[22] Hyde, M.J., Mostyn, A., Modi, N. and Kemp, P.R. (2012) The Health Implications of Birth by Caesarean Section. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 87, 229-243.
[23] Moyo, G.P.K., Sobguemezing, D. and Adjifack, H.T. (2020) Neonatal Emergencies in Full-Term Infants: A Seasonal Description in a Pediatric Referral Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon. American Journal of Pediatrics, 6, 87-90.
[24] Moyo, G.P.K., Nguedjam, M. and Miaffo, L. (2020) Necrotizing Enterocolitis Complicating Sepsis in a Late Preterm Cameroonian Infant. American Journal of Pediatrics, 6, 83-86.

Copyright © 2022 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.