Share This Article:

Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nano-Islands of Zinc and Niobium Oxides Deposited on Aluminum Thin Film by RF Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:3402KB) PP. 292-309
DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.64035    2,632 Downloads   3,141 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Zinc oxide (ZnO) and niobium oxide (NbOx) with a nano-island structure were deposited by a sputtering method on Al-coated glass substrates. Cells with a (ZnO or NbOx)/Al/glass|KNO3aq.|Al/ glass structure were assembled, and electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties were evaluated. The ZnO and NbOx electrodes had higher electrode potentials than the counter Al/glass electrode, and electron flows from the counter electrode to the ZnO and NbOx electrodes through the external circuit were commonly confirmed. In the ZnO-based cell, only faint photocurrent generation was seen, where Zn and Al elution from the ZnO electrode was found. In the NbOxbased cell, however, stable generation of electricity was successfully achieved, and electrode corrosion was not recognized even in microscopic observations. A photoelectrochemical conversion model was proposed based on potential-pH diagrams. In the case of nano-island structures formed at shorter NbOx deposition time, it was concluded that the photoelectrochemical reactions, which were proceeded in the immediate vicinity of the boundary among nano-islands, substrate, and electrolyte solution, were predominant for the photoelectrochemical conversion, and in the case of film structures with longer deposition time, the predominant reactions took place at the film surface.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Sajiki, G. , Benino, Y. , Nanba, T. and Okano, H. (2015) Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nano-Islands of Zinc and Niobium Oxides Deposited on Aluminum Thin Film by RF Magnetron Reactive Sputtering. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 292-309. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.64035.

References

[1] Guillevin, N., Heurtault, B.J.B., Geerligs, L.J. and Weeber, A.W. (2011) Development towards 20% Efficient Si MWT Solar Cells for Low-Cost Industrial Production. Energy Procedia, 8, 9-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.06.094
[2] De Wolf, S., Duerinckx, F., Agostinelli, G. and Beaucarne, G. (2006) Low-Cost Rear Side Floating Junction Solar-Cell Issues on mc-Si. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 90, 3431-3437.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2006.02.035
[3] Huang, J.Y., Lin, C.Y., Shen, C.H., Shieh, J.M. and Dai, B.T. (2012) Low Cost High-Efficiency Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells with Improved Light-Soaking Stability. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 98, 277-282.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2011.11.023
[4] Terakawa, A. (2013) Review of Thin-Film Silicon Deposition Techniques for High-Efficiency Solar Cells Developed at Panasonic/Sanyo. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 119, 204-208.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2013.06.044
[5] Chaudhari, V.A. and Solanki, C.S. (2010) A Novel Two Step Metallization of Ni/Cu for Low Concentrator c-Si Solar Cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 94, 2094-2101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2010.06.032
[6] Chu, L.K., Yen, C.W. and Sayed, M.A.E. (2010) Bacteriorhodopsin-Based Photo-Electrochemical Cell. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26, 620-626.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2010.07.013
[7] Barote, M.A., Kamble, S.S., Deshmukh, L.P. and Masumdar, E.U. (2013) Photo-Electrochemical Performance of Cd1-xPbxS (0≤x≤1) Thin Films. Ceramics International, 39, 1463-1467.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.07.090
[8] Tseng, C.J., Wang, C.H. and Cheng, K.W. (2012) Photoelectrochemical Performance of Gallium-Doped AgInS2 Photoelectrodes Prepared by Electrodeposition Process. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 96, 33-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2011.09.010
[9] Trunk, M., Sobas, A.G., Venkatachalapathy, V., Zhang, T., Galeckas, A. and Kuznetsov, A.Y. (2012) Testing ZnO Based Photoanodes for PEC Applications. Energy Procedia, 22, 101-107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.05.221
[10] Jacobsson, T.J., Bjorkman, C.P., Edoff, M. and Edvinsson, T. (2013) CuInxGa1-xSe2 as an Efficient Photocathode for Solar Hydrogen Generation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38, 15027-15035.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.09.094
[11] Fujishima, A. and Honda, K. (1972) Electrochemical Photolysis of Water at a Semiconductor Electrode. Nature, 238, 37-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/238037a0
[12] Imajo, T., Okano, H. and Maeda, A. (2008) Photocatalytic Lithography Using Zinc Oxide Nanoislands. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 47, 2330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.47.2330
[13] Prado, A.G.S., Bolzon, L.B., Pedroso, C.P., Moura, A.O. and Costa, L.L. (2008) Nb2O5 as Efficient and Recyclable Photocatalyst for Indigo Carmine Degradation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 82, 219-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.01.024
[14] Roza, L., Rahman, M.Y.A., Umar, A.A. and Salleh, M.M. (2015) Direct Growth of Oriented ZnO Nanotubes by Self-Selective Etching at Lower Temperature for Photo-Electrochemical (PEC) Solar Cell Application. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 618, 153-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.08.113
[15] Suzuki, S., Teshima, K., Ishizaki, T., Lee, S.H., Yubuta, K., Shishido, T. and Oishi, S. (2011) Unique Three-Dimensional Nano-/Micro-Textured Surfaces Consisting of Highly Crystalline Nb2O5 Nanotubes. Journal of Crystal Growth, 318, 1095-1100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2010.11.129
[16] Nayeri, F.D., Soleimani, E.A. and Salehi, F. (2013) Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanowires Grown on Different Seed Layers: The Application for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Renewable Energy, 60, 246-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.05.006
[17] Lin, Y., Yang, Y.J. and Hsu, C.C. (2011) Synthesis of Niobium Oxide Nanowires Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet. Thin Solid Films, 519, 3043-3049.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2010.12.024
[18] Ye, N., Qi, J., Qi, Z., Zhang, X., Yang, Y., Liu, J. and Zhang, Y. (2010) Improvement of the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Sn-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles. Journal of Power Sources, 195, 5806-5809.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.03.036
[19] Méndez, S.M., Henríquez, Y., Domínguez, O., D’Ornelas, L. and Krentzien, H. (2006) Catalytic Properties of Silica Supported Titanium, Vanadium and Niobium Oxide Nanoparticles towards the Oxidation of Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 252, 226-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2006.02.041
[20] Kang, Z., Gu, Y., Yan, X., Bai, Z., Liu, Y., Liu, S., Zhang, X., Zhang, Z., Zhang, X. and Zhang, Y. (2015) Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Property of ZnO Nanorods Array Synthesized on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Self-Powered Biosensing Application. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 64, 499-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.055
[21] Wen, H., Liu, Z., Wang, J., Yang, Q., Li, Y. and Yu, J. (2011) Facile Synthesis of Nb2O5 Nanorod Array Films and Their Electrochemical Properties. Applied Surface Science, 257, 10084-10088.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.07.001
[22] Kou, H., Zhang, X., Du, Y., Ye, W., Lin, S. and Wang, C. (2011) Electrochemical Synthesis of ZnO Nanoflowers and Nanosheets on Porous Si as Photoelectric Materials. Applied Surface Science, 257, 4643-4649.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.12.108
[23] Choi, B., Myung, N. and Rajeshwar, K. (2007) Double Template Electrosynthesis of ZnO Nanodot Array. Electrochemistry Communications, 9, 1592-1595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2007.02.025
[24] Qi, S., Zuo, R., Liu, Y. and Wang, Y. (2013) Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Electrospun Niobium Oxide Nanofibers. Materials Research Bulletin, 48, 1213-1217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2012.11.074
[25] Bonakdarpour, A., Tucker, R.T., Fleischauer, M.D., Beckers, N.A., Brett, M.J. and Wilkinson, D.P. (2012) Nanopillar Niobium Oxides as Support Structures for Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts. Electrochimica Acta, 85, 492-500.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2012.08.005
[26] Hayashi, Y., Arita, M., Koga, K. and Masuda, M. (1995) Photo-Electrochemical Properties of Hydrogen in Anodically Oxidized Niobium. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 231, 702-705. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0925-8388(95)01756-9
[27] Sugisaki, N., Niizuma, K. and Ikawa, H. (2010) Photocatalytic Effect of Niobium Oxide Film by RF Magnetron Sputtering Method. College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University Lecture Meeting.
[28] Lide, D.R. (2001) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 82nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[29] Asano, T., Kubo, T. and Nishikitani, Y. (2005) Short-Circuit Current Density Behavior of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 44, 6776-6780.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.44.6776
[30] Kim, J.H. and Ahn, K.S. (2010) Tri-Branched Tri-Anchoring Organic Dye for Visible Light-Responsive Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Cells. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 49, Article ID: 060219.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.49.060219
[31] Onodera, M., Nagumo, R., Miura, R., Suzuki, A., Tsuboi, H., Hatakeyama, N., Endou, A., Takada, H., Kubo, M. and Miyamoto, A. (2011) Multiscale Simulation of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Considering Schottky Barrier Effect at Photoelectrode. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 50, Article ID: 04DP06.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.50.04DP06
[32] Pourbaix, M. (1966) Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
[33] Yagi, S., Kondo, Y., Satake, Y., Ashida, A. and Fujimura, N. (2012) Local pH Control by Electrolysis for ZnO Epitaxial Deposition on a Pt Cathode. Electrochimica Acta, 62, 348-353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2011.12.059
[34] Han, Y., Chen, Z., Tong, L., Yang, L., Shen, J., Wang, B., Liu, Y., Liu, Y. and Chen, Q. (2013) Reduction of N-Nitrosodimethylamine with Zero-Valent Zinc. Water Research, 47, 216-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.043
[35] Wranglén, G. (1985) An Introduction to Corrosion and Protection of Metals. Chapman & Hall, London.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4850-1
[36] Kojima, Y. (2011) Electrochemical Analysis for Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum, Keikinzoku. Journal of Japan Institute of Light Metals, 61, 167. (In Japanese).
[37] Fruhwirth, O., Herzog, G.W. and Poulios, J. (1985) Dark Dissolution and Photodissolution of ZnO. Surface Technology, 24, 293-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0376-4583(85)90079-2
[38] Asselin, E., Ahmed, T.M. and Alfantazi, A. (2007) Corrosion of Niobium in Sulphuric and Hydrochloric Acid Solutions at 75 and 95℃. Corrosion Science, 49, 694-710.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2006.05.028
[39] Han, J., Qiu, W. and Gao, W. (2010) Potential Dissolution and Photo-Dissolution of ZnO Thin Films. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178, 115-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.01.050
[40] Rao, M.V., Rajeshwar, K., Pal Verneker, V.R. and Du Bow, J. (1980) Photosynthetic Production of H2 and H2O2 on Semiconducting Oxide Grains in Aqueous Solutions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 84, 1987-1991.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100452a023
[41] Izaki, M. and Omi, T. (1996) Electrolyte Optimization for Cathodic Growth of Zinc Oxide Films. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 143, L53-L55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.1836529

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.