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The Israeli Hydrological Service (1970-2017) National Water Authority, Annual Reports 1970-2017.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Climate and Water Balance Changes in the Kinneret Watershed: A Review

    AUTHORS: Moshe Gophen

    KEYWORDS: Kinneret, Hula, Watershed, Climate Change, Water Balance, Agriculture

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, Vol.10 No.2, April 8, 2020

    ABSTRACT: Regional Climate Change studied during 1950-2019 aimed at enhancement of aridity was indicated recently in the Lake Kinneret (Israel) watershed. Climate change was indicated by: Higher periodical frequency of negative SPI Values (Standard Precipitation Index), decline of Precipitation regime and River flow inputs that was followed by decline of Lake Kinneret WL and Elevation of ET regime. Nevertheless aridity enhanced the opposite, decline of ET capacities. Underground flows indicated outputs enhancement. The temporal decline of air temperature during 1940-1980 probably due to the change of ALBEDO Factor was twisted later into regional temperature elevation. During the 1950s, old lake Hula and surrounding wetlands were drained and water cover surface was converted to plant cover, which enhanced sunlight energy reflection. Followed eventual climate change, management legislations were a reduction of water allocation for agricultural irrigation. A recent public dispute has indicated contradicted conclusions as causation for WL decline in Lake Kinneret: 1) Enhancement of Agricultural water consumption in the Upper Jordan Watershed and 2) Climate change-aridity enhancement. This paper confirms the second conclusion.