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Article citations


Nei, M. and Li, W.H. (1979) Mathematical Model for Studying Genetic Variation of Restriction Endonucleases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 10, 5269-5273.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Differentiation of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains from Broiler Chickens by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Random Amplified Polymorphic (RAPD) DNA

    AUTHORS: Dirgam Ahmad Roussan, Hana Zakaria, Ghassan Khawaldeh, Ibrahim Shaheen

    KEYWORDS: Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Broiler, Multiplex PCR, Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol.4 No.10, October 20, 2014

    ABSTRACT: We examined 50 Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from broiler chickens between January 2013 to March 2014 in order to evaluate the epidemiological prevalence of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) in Jordan by multiplex PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) tests. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which was used as tentative criteria of APEC targets 8 virulence associated genes; enteroaggregative toxin (astA), Type 1 fimbria adhesion (fimH), iron-repressible protein (irp2), P fimbriae (papC), aerobactin (iucD), temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh), vacuolating autotransporter toxin (vat), and colicin V plasmid operon (cva/cvi) genes. The number of detected genes could be used as a reliable index of their virulence. E. coli strains already typed as an APEC always harbor 5 to 8 genes, but non-APEC strains harbor less than 4 genes. Assuming the criteria of an APEC is possession of 5 or more virulence associated genes; we found that all 50 E. coli strains were classified as APEC strains. The RAPD analysis showed that the E. coli strains could be grouped into 35 of RAPD types by using these two different RAPD primer sets, RAPD analysis primer 4 5'AAGAGCCCGT5', and RAPD analysis primer 6 5'CCCGTCAGCA3'. The current study confirmed the endemic nature of APEC in broiler flocks in Jordan. It is essential that the biosecurity on poultry farms should be improved to prevent the introduction and dissemination of APEC and other agents. Furthermore, farmers need to be educated about the signs, lesions, and the importance of this agent.