SCIRP Mobile Website

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


USEPA, “Composting Toilet, Water Efficiency,” Technology Fact Sheet, EPA 832-F-99-066, Washington DC, 1999.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Multicriteria Assessment of Various Onsite Wastewater Treatment Options for Nigeria

    AUTHORS: Chidozie Charles Nnaji, Chinedu Ekechukwu, Fortune Onyia, Christopher Afangideh

    KEYWORDS: Septic Tank; Wastewater; Contamination; Analytic Network Process; Risks

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol.5 No.2, February 28, 2014

    ABSTRACT: Eight onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) were evaluated for suitability of application in Nigeria for efficient treatment and disposal of domestic wastewater, using analytic network process (ANP). Ten location related risks were used as criteria in the decision making process. Expert views were used to obtain pairwise comparison matrices of the OWTSs with respect to the criteria. Saaty’s Super Decision Software was used to complete the ranking process. The order of ranking obtained was as follows: septic tank with absorption field (0.1502) > septic tank with soakaway (0.142) > composting toilet (0.128) > septic tank with sand filter (0.125) > septic tank with constructed wetland (0.12) > septic tank with holding tank (0.12) > septic tank with mound system (0.118) > septic tank with recirculating sand filter (0.096). However, when the costs and life spans of these systems were incorporated into the ranks, and considering other factors, the septic tank with absorption field stood out as the best option. A simple sensitivity analysis shows that depth to water table, proximity to drinking water, susceptibility to flooding and proximity to large roots have the highest influence on the ranks of OWTSs.