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Keyes, C., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing wellbeing: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 82, 1007-1022. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.1007

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Development and Validation of a Mental Wellbeing Scale in Singapore

    AUTHORS: Chan Mei Fen, Isnis Isa, Chang Weining Chu, Chew Ling, Sng Yan Ling

    KEYWORDS: Mental Wellbeing; Psychological Wellbeing

    JOURNAL NAME: Psychology, Vol.4 No.7, July 19, 2013

    ABSTRACT: With a total number of 3400 participants, a sequence of four studies in two waves of data collection, the present study identified the conceptualization and construction of a mental wellbeing scale in a modern Asian multi-ethnic community-Singapore. Study 1 consisted a series of interviews (N = 351), surveys (N = 161) and focus group discussions (N = 59) to examine the popular conceptualization and manifestation of the construct of mental wellbeing in Singapore. The multi-ethnic inputs were then categorized into popular categories to construct a prototype of the Singapore Mental Wellbeing (SMWEB) Scale. With a nationally representative sample of 741 participants, Study 2 found the internal reliability (α = .962, 30 items) and a strong construct validity of the SMWEB. EFA and CFA confirmed a five dimensional structure of the SMWEB: Asian Self-esteem, Social Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Cognitive Efficacy. Each dimension is internally coherent and culturally meaningful. With an additional nationally representative sample of 2091 participants, Study 3 constructed a short form of the SMWEB, the SMWEB-S with high internal reliability (α = .932, 16 items) and strong construct validity. Using Sample 2 and the SMWEB-S, Study 4 further validated the SMWEB as a measure of mental wellbeing by testing two theoretical models: the multi-dimensional model of mental wellbeing and the two factor model of mental wellbeing versus mental disorders. Excellent fit indices were found with both models. Further, the SMWEB-S showed significant construct validity by significantly predicting the culturally sanctioned goal pursuits: personal income and education attainment.