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Kira, I., Lewandowsi, L., Templin, T., Ramaswamy, V., Ozkan, B., & Mohanesh, J. (2010b). The effects of perceived discrimination and backlash on Iraqi refugees’ physical and mental health. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 5, 59-81. doi:10.1080/15564901003622110

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Cumulative Trauma Disorder Scale (CTD): Two Studies

    AUTHORS: Ibrahim A. Kira, Thomas Templin, Linda Lewandowski, Jeffery S. Ashby, Alwande Oladele, Lydia Odenat

    KEYWORDS: Complex PTSD; DESNOS; Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD); Torture Survivors;Refugees; Minorities

    JOURNAL NAME: Psychology, Vol.3 No.9, September 25, 2012

    ABSTRACT: Measures that screen for mental health in multiple traumatized populations (e.g., refugees, minorities, mental health patients, prison inmates) lack theoretical clarity that makes it difficult to develop a measure that has robust psychometrics. The paper proposes cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) model and develops a scale that measures the concept and can be used as a general mental health screening tool in such populations. The measure has been tested on two studies: on representative community sample of Iraqi refugees in Michigan and on a clinic sample of refugees. Further, the measure was used on samples of Iraqi refugee and African American adolescents, West Bank and Gaza in Palestinian territories, as well as a mental health screening tool in some centers that screen refugees and torture survivors in US. The measure has been found to have high alpha and test-retest reliability, good construct, concurrent, discriminative and predictive validity in the two main samples and on all the studies and centers that utilized it. The measure can be used as a general mental health screening tool for adult and adolescent in public health settings in different cultures, as well as for refugees, torture survivors, and highly traumatized populations.