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Nishioka, C., Hasegawa, N., et al. (2012) Halitosis in Daily Life: The Incidence and Factors Affecting the Onset of Symptoms. Journal of the Japanese Academy of Malodor Syndrome, 3, 7-11.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Influence of Oral Malodor on Psychological Stress

    AUTHORS: Masayuki Kato, Ailing Hu, Satoshi Kimura, Takuji Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi

    KEYWORDS: Oral Malodor, Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSC), Stress, Salivary Assay, POMS2

    JOURNAL NAME: Health, Vol.11 No.5, May 21, 2019

    ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of oral malodor on psychological stress among patients with a chief complaint of oral malodor. A total of 101 patients (40 male and 61 female) who visited our clinic with a chief complaint of oral malodor were included in this study. The primary compounds of oral malodor—volatile sulfur compounds (VSC)—were measured using the Oral ChromaTM instrument. Salivary stress markers, cortisol, and chromogranin A were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States 2nd Edition (POMS2). Among the participants, 60.3% had at least one level above the threshold in the following three markers: hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide. The gender distribution was 35 female (57.4%) and 25 male (62.5%). Salivary cortisol levels, a biomarker of stress, did not vary depending on the presence or absence of oral malodor. Chromogranin A levels were higher in the oral malodor female group than in the no oral malodor female group. With respect to the POMS2, regardless of the presence or absence of oral malodor measured using gas chromatography, the participants had higher scores for “Anger-Hostility” and “Fatigue-Inertia”. Analysis by gender showed that “Depression-Dejection” was significantly higher in the oral malodor female group than in the no oral malodor female group. These results suggest that those who are worried about oral malodor have higher psychological stress than those who are not, regardless of the presence or absence of oral malodor measured using gas chromatography.