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Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic Status and Child Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371-399.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Association of Early Childhood Education and Care with Cognitive Learning Outcomes at 15 Years of Age in Finland

    AUTHORS: Aino Saarinen, Jari Lipsanen, Minna Huotilainen, Mirka Hintsanen, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

    KEYWORDS: Early Childhood Education, Early Childhood Care, Learning Outcomes, PISA, Parental Socioeconomic Status

    JOURNAL NAME: Psychology, Vol.10 No.4, March 14, 2019

    ABSTRACT: Background: We investigated whether child’s participation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is associated with later cognitive learning outcomes at 15 years of age in Finland. Methods: The Finnish PISA 2015 data (N = 4634) was used. Learning outcomes in science, reading, mathematics, and collaborative problem-solving were evaluated with computer-based tests in 2015. Participation in ECEC and parental SES were assessed with questionnaires. Results: In any learning outcome, students who had only participated in preschool at 6 years of age did not differ from students who had started in ECEC at any other age between 1 - 5 years. Additionally, at a trend level, participation in ECEC before preschool had more beneficial effects on learning outcomes among students with high parental SES than low parental SES. Conclusions: ECEC before preschool is not associated with learning outcomes at 15 years of age in Finland. ECEC may not have compensatory effects for children coming from socioeconomically disadvantaged families in Finland. In the future, it is necessary to further investigate which factors might diminish the inequality in learning outcomes between children coming from different family background. In particular, more research is needed about the influence of both societal factors (e.g. integration of immigration families, psychosocial family environment, gender-specific factors) and child-care related factors (e.g. special education; individually tailored day care programs for high-risk children).