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EPA (2017) Oil Spill Response Techniques, EPA’s Response Techniques.
https://www.epa.gov/emergency-response/epas-response-techniques

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Optimisation of Crude Oil Adsorbent Developed from a Modified Styrene Kenaf Shive

    AUTHORS: Zwahruddeen Muhammad Salisu, Ishiaku S. Umaru, Danladi Abdullahi, Mohammed Kabir Yakubu, Diya’uddeen Bashir Hasan

    KEYWORDS: Sorbent, Initiator, Crude Oil, Kenaf Shive, Respond Surface Methodology (RSM)

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Vol.7 No.2, February 28, 2019

    ABSTRACT: A new kind of hydrophobic crude oil sorbent was successfully developed by grafting kenaf shive with styrene monomer. In this paper, crude oil sorbents were developed through regeneration method by varying the initiator concentration, monomer ratio and particle sizes in the range of 0.5 - 2.5 wt%, 0.5 - 2.0 wt % and 125 - 1000 μm respectively. This research approach for the development of crude oil sorbent from graft modified kenaf shive/core and the aforementioned variable optimization has not been reported. The effect studies of the individual and combine factors were carried out using a statistical experimental design matrix using five-level central composite design (CCD). Respond surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise and develop equations of the aforementioned variables (initiator concentration, monomer ratio and particle sizes). The optimal swelling capacity of 616% and 267% lower retention were achieved at initiator concentration, monomer ratio and particle size of 12.5 wt%, 1.50 wt% and 562 μm respectively. TGA-DTA, XRD and BET analysis were carried out on optimised sample and, FTIR was carried on both unmodified (UG) and optimized sorbent. Further computations were done for grafting efficiency (GE), homopolymers and density. The findings display the effect of the three variables and navigation equations were generated for further investigations on them. However, the results show the feasibility and robustness of facile oil sorption.