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Halliwell, B. and Guttteridge, J.M. (2007) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press, Clarendon, Oxford, 221-238.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Sodium Fluoride Induces Hepato-Renal Oxidative Stress and Pathophysiological Changes in Experimental Animals

    AUTHORS: Azab Elsayed Azab, Mohamed Omer Albasha, J. M. Jbireal, Almokhtar A. Adwas

    KEYWORDS: Sodium Fluoride Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, Hepatorenal Histopathological Changes, Hepatorenal Pathophysiological Changes

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Apoptosis, Vol.7 No.1, January 31, 2018

    ABSTRACT: The liver is a primary site for xenobiotics detoxification, and its metabolism is readily altered by toxicity. The kidney is a common target for toxic xenobiotics due to its capacity to extract and concentrate toxic substances by highly specialized cells. So, they are the target organs of sodium fluoride toxicity. The aim of this review is to highlight on hepatorenal oxidative stress and pathophysiological changes induced by treatment of experimental animals with sodium fluoride. Our review shows fluoride toxicosis caused an elevation in the serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and the level of total bilirubin, and reduction in the serum levels of total protein, albumin, and globulins, and serious histopathological changes in the hepaic tissues. Also, NaF administration caused increases in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium ions, and chloride ions levels and serious histopathological changes in the kidney tissues. Treatment of experimental animals with NaF induced oxidative stress in hepatic and renal tissues. It can be concluded that administration of sodium fluoride to experimental animals induced oxidative stress, serious hepatorenal histopathological changes, and disturbance in liver and kidney functions. So, human should be advised to decrease exposure to sodium fluoride to decrease the harmful effects of NaF on liver and kidney.