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Sayer E.J., Tanner, E.V.J. and Lacey, A.L. (2006) Effects of Litter Manipulation on Early-Stage Decomposition and Meso-Arthropod Abundance in a Tropical Moist Forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 229, 285-293.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Early Forage Biomass and Sward Structures of Native Warm-Season Grasses Established at Different Seedling Densities

    AUTHORS: Vitalis W. Temu, Christos Galanopoulos, Maru K. Kering, Laban K. Rutto

    KEYWORDS: Forage, Native Warm-Season Grass, Establishment, Transplant, Seedling Density, Yield, Cover, Habitat Quality, Sward Structure

    JOURNAL NAME: American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol.9 No.4, March 28, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Effects of transplanted seedling density and species on sward structure of native warm-season grass (NWSG) stands were compared in a randomized complete block design. About 6-week-old NWSG (big bluestem (BB, Andropogon gerardii Vitman), eastern gamagrass (GG, Tripsacum dactyloides L.), indiangrass [IG, Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] and switchgrass (SG, Panicum virgatum) seedlings were transplanted in 45-cm wide rows on clean-tilled seedbeds. Within-row spacing was 30, 25, or, 20 cm giving 10, 12, and 15 plants m-2 as low, medium, and high seedling density, respectively. During establishment, the stands were allowed uninterrupted first year growth without fertilizers or irrigation but when necessary, tall-growing broadleaf weeds were mechanically removed. In the following spring, all dead standing biomass was mowed down to allow emerging tillers access to sunlight. During the second year after planting, early-spring basal diameters, row-length intercepted by the NWSG crowns, mid-summer sward heights, and percentage bare ground were determined. From the second June after planting, and for two consecutive years, plots were harvested twice year-1 to assess forage biomass. Data showed that, unlike species, seedling density had no effect on the assessed parameters. Cumulative forage biomass, in kg DM ha-1, was the least for GG (4901) at low and the most (18,245) for SG at high seedling density during the second year. Corresponding values for the third year were 4500 and 7799 kg DM ha-1. Basal diameters ranged from 18 cm (BB) to 24 cm (IG) while percent row intercepts were from 6 (GG) to 46 (IG) with sward heights measuring 41 cm (IG) to 54 cm (GG). In each stand, percent ground cover by the NWSGs, and at every seedling density, averaged 60.5. Transplanting at ≥10 plant m-2 resulted in harvest-ready stands by the second year of establishment. And while close spacing favored the NWSGs against weeds, data showed that an initial plant density of >10 plants m-2 may not result in increased forage production worthy the additional establishment cost. Data on response to fertility management and forage quality attributes are necessary for more reliable practical recommendations.