SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.

 

Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
   
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat
(or Email:book@scirp.org)

Article citations

More>>

Mostaghel, N. (2016) A New Solution for the Friedman Equations. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 6, 122-134.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ijaa.2016.61010

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Mass of the Universe and the Redshift

    AUTHORS: Rajendra P. Gupta

    KEYWORDS: Redshift, Expanding Universe, Mach Effect, Cosmic Drag, Cosmological Constant

    JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol.8 No.1, March 15, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Cosmological redshift is commonly attributed to the continuous expansion of the universe starting from the Big-Bang. However, expansion models require simplifying assumptions and multiple parameters to get acceptable fit to the observed data. Here we consider the redshift to be a hybrid of two effects: recession of distant galaxies due to expansion of the universe, and resistance to light propagation due to cosmic drag. The weight factor determining the contribution of the two effects is the only parameter that is needed to fit the observed data. The cosmic drag considered phenomenologically yields mass of the universe ≈2 × 1053 kg. This implicitly suggests that the mass of the whole universe is causing the cosmic drag. The databases of extragalactic objects containing redshift z and distance modulus μ of galaxies up to z = 8.26 resulted in an excellent fit to the model. Also, the weight factor wD for expansion effect contribution to μ obtained from the data sets containing progressively higher values of μcan be nicely fitted with .