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Glendenning, N. (2007) Special and General Relativity. Springer, Berlin.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Evidence of Pulsars Metamorphism and Their Connection to Stellar Black Holes

    AUTHORS: Ahmad A. Hujeirat

    KEYWORDS: Relativity, General, Black Hole Physics, Pulsars, Neutron Stars, Superfluidity, Low Temperature and Condensed Matter, QCD, Dark Energy, Dark Matter

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol.9 No.4, March 14, 2018

    ABSTRACT: It is agreed that the progenitors of neutron stars (-NSs) and black holes (-BHs) should be massive stars with . Yet none of these objects have ever been found with . Moreover, numerical modelings show that NSs of reasonable masses can be obtained only if the corresponding central density is beyond the nuclear one: an unverifiable density-regime with unknown physics. Here I intend to clarify the reasons underlying the existence of this mass-gap and propose a new class of invisible ultra-compact objects: the end-stage in the cosmological evolution of pulsars and neutron stars in an ever expanding universe. The present study relies on theoretical and experimental considerations as well as on solution of the non-linear TOV equation modified to include a universal scalar field −∅ at the background of supranuclear densities. The computer-code is based on finite volume method using both the first-order Euler and fourth-order Rugge-Kutta integration methods. The inclusion of ∅ at zero-temperature is motivated by recent observations of the short-living pentaquarks at the LHC. Based on these studies, I argue that pulsars must be born with embryonic super-baryons (SBs) that form through merger of individual neutrons at their centers. The cores of SBs are made of purely incompressible superconducting gluon-quark superfluids (henceforth SuSu-fluids). Such quantum fluids have a uniform supranuclear density and governed by the critical EOSs for baryonic matter and for ∅-induced dark energy . The incompressibility here ensures that particles communicate at the shortest possible time scale, superfluidity and superconductivity enforce SBs to spin-down promptly as dictated by the Onsager-Feynman equation and to expel vortices and magnetic flux tubes, whereas their lowest energy state grants SBs lifetimes that are comparable to those of protons. These extra-ordinary long lifetimes suggest that conglomeration of SuSu-objects would evolve over several big bang events to possibly form dark matter halos that embed the galaxies in the observable universe. Pulsars and young neutron stars should metamorphose into SuSu-objects: a procedure which is predicted to last for one Gyr or even shorter, depending on their initial compactness. Once the process is completed, then they become extraordinary compact and turn invisible. It turns out that recent observations of particle collisions at the LHC and RHIC, observations of glitching pulsars and primordial galaxies remarkably support the present scenario.