SCIRP Mobile Website
Paper Submission

Why Us? >>

  • - Open Access
  • - Peer-reviewed
  • - Rapid publication
  • - Lifetime hosting
  • - Free indexing service
  • - Free promotion service
  • - More citations
  • - Search engine friendly

Free SCIRP Newsletters>>

Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP.


Contact Us >>

WhatsApp  +86 18163351462(WhatsApp)
Paper Publishing WeChat
Book Publishing WeChat

Article citations


Jackson, L.W.R. (1967) Effect of Shade on Leaf Structure of Deciduous Tree Species. Ecology, 48, 498-499.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Succession in Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s Oak) Woodlands

    AUTHORS: O. W. Van Auken, J. K. Bush

    KEYWORDS: Gas Exchange, Growth Rates, Light Levels, Oak Replacement, Photosynthetic Rates, Population Dynamics, White Fir, Wood Specific Gravity

    JOURNAL NAME: American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol.8 No.2, January 19, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak) communities are found in the mountains of the western United States from Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah south into northern Mexico. Leaf gas exchange rates were measured for potential successional species in Q. gambelii communities. Daily average light level below the canopy was 125 μmol/m2/sec. Light response curves indicated that Pinus ponderosa and Q. gambelii had high maximum photosynthetic rates (14.13 and 11.21 μmol/m2/sec) and were sun species. Abies concolor (white fir) is a shade species with the lowest photosynthetic rate (3.71 μmol/m2/sec). At low light levels few differences in photosynthetic rates were found between the species. Pinus ponderosa and Q. gambelii maximum photosynthetic rates were reduced 71% - 73% in shade and the shade species maximum photosynthetic rates were reduced by 50% - 57%. Comparing annual gas exchange rates for all species showed that A. concolor had higher gas exchange rates and could replace Q. gambelii. Growth in height of Q. gambelii was a second order quadratic function reaching a plateau of about ten meters between 80 and 95 years. Growth estimates of height of A. concolor in canopy shade were exponential, which would allow seedlings to reach the Q. gambelii canopy in approximately 35 years. Abies concolor wood specific gravity is 56% lower than Q. gambelii, which means more carbon is put into growth in height to reach the canopy at low light levels and low photosynthetic rates. The additional shading it causes would further reduce Q. gambelii photosynthesis rates and prevent self-replacement in these Q. gambelii communities, leading to an A. concolor dominated community.