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Article citations


Abdel Salam, S., El Zokm, G., Shobier, A., Othman, T. and Shreadah, M.A. (2013) Metal Pollution in Surface Sediments of Abu Qir Bay and the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 39, 1-12.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Environmental Studies on the Aqaba Gulf Coastal Waters during 2011-2013

    AUTHORS: Ahamed M. Abdel-Halim, Mohamed A. Aly-Eldeen, Laila M. Abdel Fattah, Mamdouh A. Fahmy, Ehssan M. Abo-El-Khair, Azza M. Khaled, Ahamed Abu El-Soud, Mohamed A. Shreadah

    KEYWORDS: Physicochemical Properties, Nutrients, Heavy Metals, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Coastal Water, Gulf of Aqaba

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol.7 No.10, September 30, 2016

    ABSTRACT: In order to assess the quality of the Aqaba Gulf coastal waters for the sustainable use and development, and consequently for the national income, four field campaigns were annually carried out during the period from 2011-2013 to monitor hydrographic variables, i.e. temperature, salinity, pH, etc., nutrients, some heavy metals, i.e. iron, lead, copper, cadmium, chromium, etc. in addition to petroleum hydrocarbons. Except for the area of Sharm El-Sheikh Harbor, the results for the density, composition, and distributions of beach litter cleared out that the Egyptian shoreline of the Aqaba Gulf is relatively not affected by man-made litter. The area of Sharm El-Sheikh Harbor was subjected to many factors which undoubtedly affected the rate of man-made litter ac-cumulation, especially, oil contamination (oil and old or new tar) which is a good es-timator of levels of oil contamination and an effective means of evaluating the poten-tial threat of oil on coastal resources. The results of the present study cleared out also that water temperature followed seasonal changes in air temperature. Aqaba Gulf water is characterized by its high salinity and the presence of well oxygenated waters. Minor changes in the distribution of pH, BOD, DOM and COD, revealed limited effects of human impacts. Low levels of Chl-a and TSM concentrations and high transparency revealed also negligible effects for human impacts. Significantly higher sea water temperatures, TSM, DO, BOD, DOM, COD, NH4, NO2, PO4 and TP were observed in summer season compared to their corresponding values in winter season. On contrast, higher values of chlorophyll-a, NO2, TN, and SiO4 were observed in winter compared to summer season. Based on the mean annual values, Aqaba Gulf coastal waters are classified as oligotrophic to mesotrophic state. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen forms followed the following order: NH4= NO3>NO2. In general, the majority of TN in winter was in the form of organic-N (96.3%) compared to 91.7% in summer season. On the meantime, TP exhibited more or less comparable organic-P percentage in summer (86.2%) and winter (81.2%) seasons. Moreover, the DIN/DIP ratio showed relatively higher values in winter season (14.2:1) compared to summer season (12.4:1). This indicates high nitrogen concentrations in comparison with that of phosphorous in winter; yet it reflects the generally lower nutrient levels present in the coastal waters of the Aqaba Gulf due to the lack of significant nutrient input or oceanic upwelling. Concentrations of heavy metals were relatively low signifying that Aqaba Gulf Coastal waters are not yet seriously threatened in spite of the rapid recreational and human developments that are considered a challenge to the safety and viability of Aqaba Gulf marine environment. Furthermore, concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons were significantly higher in summer than in winter that are mainly attributed to the increase in the levels of oil pollution that most probably re-sulted from the increase in accidental, deliberate or operational discharges and spills of oil from ships. In general, the maximum concentration was much lower than the harmful concentrations reported for seawater. A stepwise multiple linear regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and principle component analysis (PCA) were applied.