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Tansakul, P., Shibuya, M., Kushiro, T. and Ebizuka, Y. (2006) Dammarenediol-II Synthase, the First Dedicated Enzyme for Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Panax ginseng. FEBS Letters, 580, 5143-5149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2006.08.044

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Effects of Arsenic Treatments on Saponin Content and Heterogeneity Extracted from Rhizome and Main Root of Panax notoginseng Plants Grown in Shaded Field

    AUTHORS: Yanqun Zu, Jinjin Sun, Ni Ma, Qiang Min, Guangquan Feng, Jiong Wu, Yuan Li

    KEYWORDS: Panax notoginseng, Saponin, As, Squalene Synthase, Gene Expression

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Vol.4 No.7, July 22, 2016

    ABSTRACT: As contamination is one of important factors to Panax notoginseng quality and safety. Saponin is one of important compounds with the medicinal values of P. notoginseng. The impact of soil As on production of saponin of P. notoginseng knew very little. This study was performed to determine content and heterogeneity of saponins from P. notoginseng and its mechanisms upon treatments with different concentration levels of As in soil. Plants of P. notoginseng were treated with arsenic [As (V)] at 0, 20, 80, 140, 20 and 260 mg/kg concentration levels which were supplied as sodium arsenate (Na3AsO4). These experimental plants were grown in shade condition in a greenhouse. Plants were harvested at vigorous vegetative growth and fruit ripening stages, separately. Effects of As treatments on saponin content, and heterogeneity of monomers in the mixtures of notoginesenosides and ginsenosides, enzymatic activity and gene expression level of squalene synthetase were determined for rhizome and main root tissues. Results show that:(1) Of all the As treatments from the lowest to the highest concentration levels, the As content in both rhizome and main roots from As-treated plants was within the standard level for superior products derived from P. notoginseng. The content of notoginsenosides from all tissues except the main roots at fruit ripening stage, was 5% higher than the standard level specified in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia; (2) The treatment of As at 20 mg/kg led to an 3.5% - 183.9% increases in total notoginesenosides content in rhizome and main roots, respectively. Treatments with the highest As concentration at 260 mg/kg resulted in a significant decline in total notoginsenosides content, and lower enzymatic activity and gene expression levels of squalene synthetase; (3) Under As treatment conditions, the ratio of Rb1/Rg1 decreased but the ratio of (Rb1 + Rg1)/R1 increased in bothrhizomes and main roots. Conclusively, this study demonstrated that low As concentration (20 - 80 mg/kg) treatments resulted in higher notoginsenoside content in P. notoginseng. However, treatments with high As concentrations had an adverse effect. The repression in the synthesis of notoginsenoside and interruption of the conversion process from propanaxadiol into propanaxatriol are responsible for more heterogeneous monomer mixtures and low notoginsenoside content. For plants treated with the highest As concentration of 260 mg/kg, both gene expression and enzymatic activities of squalene synthetase were greatly repressed thus leading to a significantly low saponin content in rhizome and main root tissues.