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Article citations


Liu, R. T. (2013). Stress Generation: Future Directions and Clinical Implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 406-416.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Is Complicated Birth One of the Early Childhood Traumas? A Framework for Birthing Trauma, Its Impacts, and Proliferation

    AUTHORS: Ibrahim A. Kira, Linda Lewandowski, Lisa Chiodo, Andreas Laddis

    KEYWORDS: Early Childhood Traumas, Developmentally-Based Trauma Framework (DBTF), Neurocognitive Functioning, Trauma Proliferation, Existential Annihilation Anxiety

    JOURNAL NAME: Psychology, Vol.7 No.3, March 30, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Objective: Birthing trauma (BT) (i.e., complicated birth) is an early life complex trauma for the baby and mother that never been empirically examined or considered within the trauma field as a traumatic stressor for the newborn. The goal of current study is to examine its effects on mental health and neurocognitive functioning and explore its proliferation to other life traumas. Method: Current study utilizes a novel developmental-based trauma framework (DBTF) to empirically test assumptions about some of its negative delayed psychosocial and neurocognitive effects in ado-lescents, and the dynamics of its proliferation to other potentially dependent traumas. A commu-nity sample of 410 African American and Iraqi adolescents have been administered measures of traumas (CTS), birthing trauma, PTSD, complex PTSD (CTD), existential anxiety and WISC IV. We controlled for the numerous cumulative stressors and traumas that could potentially be playing a role. .Results: Correlations and path analyses and multigroup invariance found that BT predicted elevated symptoms of post-trauma spectrum disorders, reduced IQ scores, and increased discre-pancy IQ index. These relationships were strongly invariant across gender and cultural groups. BT directly predicted other early childhood traumas, and indirectly all other life trauma types, which support BT proliferation hypothesis. These relationships were strongly invariant across gender. Conclusion: Screening for Birthing Trauma as one of the serious early childhood trauma is impor-tant. Early intervention with BT victims to provide early psychological and educational help and prevent proliferation dynamics is important.